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Title: Anatomic Distribution of Fluorodeoxyglucose-Avid Para-aortic Lymph Nodes in Patients With Cervical Cancer

Abstract

Purpose: Conformal treatment of para-aortic lymph nodes (PAN) in cervical cancer allows dose escalation and reduces normal tissue toxicity. Currently, data documenting the precise location of involved PAN are lacking. We define the spatial distribution of this high-risk nodal volume by analyzing fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-avid lymph nodes (LNs) on positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scans in patients with cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: We identified 72 PANs on pretreatment PET/CT of 30 patients with newly diagnosed stage IB-IVA cervical cancer treated with definitive chemoradiation. LNs were classified as left-lateral para-aortic (LPA), aortocaval (AC), or right paracaval (RPC). Distances from the LN center to the closest vessel and adjacent vertebral body were calculated. Using deformable image registration, nodes were mapped to a template computed tomogram to provide a visual impression of nodal frequencies and anatomic distribution. Results: We identified 72 PET-positive para-aortic lymph nodes (37 LPA, 32 AC, 3 RPC). All RPC lymph nodes were in the inferior third of the para-aortic region. The mean distance from aorta for all lymph nodes was 8.3 mm (range, 3-17 mm), and from the inferior vena cava was 5.6 mm (range, 2-10 mm). Of the 72 lymph nodes, 60% were in the inferior third, 36%more » were in the middle third, and 4% were in the upper third of the para-aortic region. In all, 29 of 30 patients also had FDG-avid pelvic lymph nodes. Conclusions: A total of 96% of PET positive nodes were adjacent to the aorta; PET positive nodes to the right of the IVC were rare and were all located distally, within 3 cm of the aortic bifurcation. Our findings suggest that circumferential margins around the vessels do not accurately define the nodal region at risk. Instead, the anatomical extent of the nodal basin should be contoured on each axial image to provide optimal coverage of the para-aortic nodal compartment.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ;  [1];  [2];  [3]; ;  [4];  [1]
  1. Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)
  2. Department of Diagnostic Radiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)
  3. Department of Gynecologic Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)
  4. Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22420312
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology and Physics; Journal Volume: 85; Journal Issue: 4; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2013 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; AORTA; CARCINOMAS; DIAGNOSIS; FLUORODEOXYGLUCOSE; LYMPH NODES; PATIENTS; POSITRON COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY; RADIATION DOSES; SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION; TOXICITY; UROGENITAL SYSTEM DISEASES; VEINS

Citation Formats

Takiar, Vinita, Fontanilla, Hiral P., Eifel, Patricia J., Jhingran, Anuja, Kelly, Patrick, Iyer, Revathy B., Levenback, Charles F., Zhang, Yongbin, Dong, Lei, and Klopp, Ann, E-mail: aklopp@mdanderson.org. Anatomic Distribution of Fluorodeoxyglucose-Avid Para-aortic Lymph Nodes in Patients With Cervical Cancer. United States: N. p., 2013. Web. doi:10.1016/J.IJROBP.2012.11.032.
Takiar, Vinita, Fontanilla, Hiral P., Eifel, Patricia J., Jhingran, Anuja, Kelly, Patrick, Iyer, Revathy B., Levenback, Charles F., Zhang, Yongbin, Dong, Lei, & Klopp, Ann, E-mail: aklopp@mdanderson.org. Anatomic Distribution of Fluorodeoxyglucose-Avid Para-aortic Lymph Nodes in Patients With Cervical Cancer. United States. doi:10.1016/J.IJROBP.2012.11.032.
Takiar, Vinita, Fontanilla, Hiral P., Eifel, Patricia J., Jhingran, Anuja, Kelly, Patrick, Iyer, Revathy B., Levenback, Charles F., Zhang, Yongbin, Dong, Lei, and Klopp, Ann, E-mail: aklopp@mdanderson.org. Fri . "Anatomic Distribution of Fluorodeoxyglucose-Avid Para-aortic Lymph Nodes in Patients With Cervical Cancer". United States. doi:10.1016/J.IJROBP.2012.11.032.
@article{osti_22420312,
title = {Anatomic Distribution of Fluorodeoxyglucose-Avid Para-aortic Lymph Nodes in Patients With Cervical Cancer},
author = {Takiar, Vinita and Fontanilla, Hiral P. and Eifel, Patricia J. and Jhingran, Anuja and Kelly, Patrick and Iyer, Revathy B. and Levenback, Charles F. and Zhang, Yongbin and Dong, Lei and Klopp, Ann, E-mail: aklopp@mdanderson.org},
abstractNote = {Purpose: Conformal treatment of para-aortic lymph nodes (PAN) in cervical cancer allows dose escalation and reduces normal tissue toxicity. Currently, data documenting the precise location of involved PAN are lacking. We define the spatial distribution of this high-risk nodal volume by analyzing fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-avid lymph nodes (LNs) on positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scans in patients with cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: We identified 72 PANs on pretreatment PET/CT of 30 patients with newly diagnosed stage IB-IVA cervical cancer treated with definitive chemoradiation. LNs were classified as left-lateral para-aortic (LPA), aortocaval (AC), or right paracaval (RPC). Distances from the LN center to the closest vessel and adjacent vertebral body were calculated. Using deformable image registration, nodes were mapped to a template computed tomogram to provide a visual impression of nodal frequencies and anatomic distribution. Results: We identified 72 PET-positive para-aortic lymph nodes (37 LPA, 32 AC, 3 RPC). All RPC lymph nodes were in the inferior third of the para-aortic region. The mean distance from aorta for all lymph nodes was 8.3 mm (range, 3-17 mm), and from the inferior vena cava was 5.6 mm (range, 2-10 mm). Of the 72 lymph nodes, 60% were in the inferior third, 36% were in the middle third, and 4% were in the upper third of the para-aortic region. In all, 29 of 30 patients also had FDG-avid pelvic lymph nodes. Conclusions: A total of 96% of PET positive nodes were adjacent to the aorta; PET positive nodes to the right of the IVC were rare and were all located distally, within 3 cm of the aortic bifurcation. Our findings suggest that circumferential margins around the vessels do not accurately define the nodal region at risk. Instead, the anatomical extent of the nodal basin should be contoured on each axial image to provide optimal coverage of the para-aortic nodal compartment.},
doi = {10.1016/J.IJROBP.2012.11.032},
journal = {International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology and Physics},
number = 4,
volume = 85,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Mar 15 00:00:00 EDT 2013},
month = {Fri Mar 15 00:00:00 EDT 2013}
}
  • Purpose: The Radiation Therapy Oncolology Group (RTOG) 0116 trial was designed to test the ability of Amifostine to reduce the toxicity of combined chemotherapy with extended-field radiotherapy and brachytherapy (Part 2), after first determining the toxicity rate for the regimen without Amifostine (Part 1). This manuscript reports the results of Part 1. Methods and Materials: Eligibility included patients with cervical carcinoma and high common iliac or para-aortic metastasis. Patients received extended-field radiotherapy to 45 Gy (1.8 Gy/fraction) with intracavitary irradiation. The final point A dose was 85 Gy LDR equivalent. Use of HDR was allowed. The positive para-aortic and highmore » common iliac nodes were boosted to 54 to 59.4 Gy. Cisplatin (40 mg/m{sup 2}) was delivered weekly during external beam and once with brachytherapy. The primary endpoint of Part 1 was acute Grade 3/4 toxicity, excluding Grade 3 leukopenia. Results: A total of 26 eligible patients were entered between August 1, 2000, and Decemeber 3, 2003. Of these, 21 had para-aortic metastasis (15 also had high common iliac involvement), and 5 had high common iliac involvement only. The median follow-up was 17.1 months (range, 1.8-38.6 months) for all patients and 21.7 months (range, 11.4-38.6 months) for alive patients. The acute Grade 3/4 toxicity rate, excluding Grade 3 leukopenia was 81%. Late Grade 3/4 toxicity was 40%. Eight patients underwent surgery for complications. Sixteen (62%) patients had a complete response for both local and nodal disease. The complete local response was 92%, the complete overall nodal response rate was 62% and the regional and para-aortic nodal response rates were 60% and 71% respectively. Estimated disease-free and overall survival at 18 months are 46% and 60%. Conclusions: Extended field and intracavitary irradiation with cisplatin for para-aortic or high common iliac metastasis from cervical cancer is associated with significant acute and late toxicity.« less
  • Purpose: To determine the efficacy and toxicity of extended-field radiotherapy (RT) with concurrent platinum-based chemotherapy in patients with uterine cervical carcinoma and positive para-aortic nodes. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the results for 33 women with Stage IB-IVB cervical cancer. Each patient had received 59.4 Gy, including a three-dimensional conformal boost to the para-aortic lymph nodes and 41.4-50.4 Gy of external beam radiotherapy to the pelvis. Each patient also underwent six or seven applications of high-dose-rate brachytherapy (median, 5 Gy to point A at each session). Results: The median follow-up period of surviving patients was 39 months. The mostmore » common acute toxicity was hematologic, observed in 23 women. Severe acute and late gastrointestinal toxicity was observed in 3 and 4 patients, respectively. More than three-quarters of patients showed a complete response, encompassing the primary mass, metastatic pelvic, and para-aortic lymph nodes. Of the 33 women, 15 had no evidence of disease, 6 had persistent disease, 4 developed in-field failures, and 6 developed distant failures. The 5-year overall and disease-free survival rate was 47% and 42%, respectively. Conclusion: Concurrent chemoradiotherapy with extended-field radiotherapy is feasible in women with uterine cervical carcinoma and positive para-aortic lymph nodes, with acceptable late morbidity and a high survival rate, although it was accompanied by substantial acute toxicity.« less
  • Purpose: To evaluate the metabolic response of uterine cervix and pelvic lymph nodes (LNs) using consecutive {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) immediately after RT and to correlate survival outcome with the metabolic response. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed 48 patients with cervical cancer who had positive pelvic LNs by preradiation therapy (pre-RT) PET/CT. All patients underwent PET/CT scans immediately after RT (inter-RT PET/CT) after median 63 Gy to the gross LNs. The metabolic response of the LNs was assessed quantitatively and semiquantitatively by measurement of the maximal standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}). Results: Classifying the metabolic response ofmore » all nodal lesions, 37 patients (77%) had LNs with complete metabolic response on the inter-RT PET/CT (LNCMRi), and 11 patients had a non-LNCMRi, including 4 patients with progressive metabolic disease. The overall 3-year survival rates were 83% for the patients with LNCMRi and 73% for the non-LNCMRi group (P=.038). The disease-free survival for patients with LNCMRi were significantly better than that for the non-LNCMRi group (71% vs 18%, respectively, P<.001). The 3-year distant metastasis-free survival rates were 79% for the patients with LNCMRi and 27% for the non-LNCMRi group (P<.001). There were no statistically significant differences in overall survival (76% vs 86%, respectively, P=.954) and disease-free survival rates (58% vs 61%, respectively, P=.818) between the CMR of primary cervical tumor and the non-CMR groups. Conclusions: The results showed a significant correlation between survival outcome and the interim metabolic response of pelvic LNs. CMR of nodal lesion on inter-RT PET/CT had excellent overall survival, disease-free survival and distant metastasis-free survival rates. This suggested that PET/CT immediately after RT can be a useful tool for the evaluation of the interim response of the LNs and identify a subset of patients with a high risk of recurrence and poor survival in patients with cervical cancer with initial positive LNs.« less
  • Purpose: The aims of this study were to evaluate the role of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) as a local treatment for isolated para-aortic lymph node (PALN) metastases originating from uterine cervical and corpus cancer. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively enrolled 30 patients with isolated PALN metastases originating from uterine cervical and corpus cancer who had received SBRT using the CyberKnife (CK). All patients were shown to have isolated PALN metastases by computed tomography (CT) and/or positron emission tomography (PET)-CT. The overall survival (OS), local control (LC) rate, and disease progression-free survival (DPFS) rate were calculated according to the Kaplan-Meiermore » method. Comparison between prognosis groups was performed using log-rank analysis. Toxicities were also evaluated. Results: The 4-year OS rate was 50.1%, and the median survival time was not reached. The OS rate among symptomatic patients was significantly lower than that among asymptomatic patients (p = 0.002). The 4-year actuarial LC rate was 67.4%. Patients with a planning target volume of {<=}17 ml had significantly higher LC rates (p = 0.009). The 4-year DPFS rate was 45.0%, and the median time to disease progression was 32 months. Small planning target volume was a favorable prognostic factor (p = 0.043). Grade 3 or 4 complications requiring hospitalization were reported in 1 patient at 20 months after SBRT. Conclusion: The OS and LS rates were promising, and the incidence of toxicities was low. Use of SBRT with the CyberKnife is an effective modality for treating isolated PALN metastases in patients with uterine cervical and corpus cancer.« less
  • Purpose: Survival in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) depends heavily on locoregional control. In this prospective study, we sought to investigate whether preoperative maximum standardized uptake value of the neck lymph nodes (SUVnodal-max) may predict prognosis in OSCC patients. Methods and Materials: A total of 120 OSCC patients with pathologically positive lymph nodes were investigated. All subjects underwent a [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) scan within 2 weeks before radical surgery and neck dissection. All patients were followed up for at least 24 months after surgery or until death. Postoperative adjuvant therapy was performed in the presence ofmore » pathologic risk factors. Optimal cutoff values of SUVnodal-max were chosen based on 5-year disease-free survival (DFS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and overall survival (OS). Independent prognosticators were identified by Cox regression analysis. Results: The median follow-up for surviving patients was 41 months. The optimal cutoff value for SUVnodal-max was 5.7. Multivariate analyses identified the following independent predictors of poor outcome: SUVnodal-max {>=}5.7 for the 5-year neck cancer control rate, distant metastatic rate, DFS, DSS, and extracapsular spread (ECS) for the 5-year DSS and OS. Among ECS patients, the presence of a SUVnodal-max {>=}5.7 identified patients with the worst prognosis. Conclusion: A SUVnodal-max of 5.7, either alone or in combination with ECS, is an independent prognosticator for 5-year neck cancer control and survival rates in OSCC patients with pathologically positive lymph nodes.« less