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Title: Development and evaluation of aperture-based complexity metrics using film and EPID measurements of static MLC openings

Abstract

Purpose: Complexity metrics have been suggested as a complement to measurement-based quality assurance for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). However, these metrics have not yet been sufficiently validated. This study develops and evaluates new aperture-based complexity metrics in the context of static multileaf collimator (MLC) openings and compares them to previously published metrics. Methods: This study develops the converted aperture metric and the edge area metric. The converted aperture metric is based on small and irregular parts within the MLC opening that are quantified as measured distances between MLC leaves. The edge area metric is based on the relative size of the region around the edges defined by the MLC. Another metric suggested in this study is the circumference/area ratio. Earlier defined aperture-based complexity metrics—the modulation complexity score, the edge metric, the ratio monitor units (MU)/Gy, the aperture area, and the aperture irregularity—are compared to the newly proposed metrics. A set of small and irregular static MLC openings are created which simulate individual IMRT/VMAT control points of various complexities. These are measured with both an amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging device and EBT3 film. The differences between calculated and measured dose distributions are evaluatedmore » using a pixel-by-pixel comparison with two global dose difference criteria of 3% and 5%. The extent of the dose differences, expressed in terms of pass rate, is used as a measure of the complexity of the MLC openings and used for the evaluation of the metrics compared in this study. The different complexity scores are calculated for each created static MLC opening. The correlation between the calculated complexity scores and the extent of the dose differences (pass rate) are analyzed in scatter plots and using Pearson’s r-values. Results: The complexity scores calculated by the edge area metric, converted aperture metric, circumference/area ratio, edge metric, and MU/Gy ratio show good linear correlation to the complexity of the MLC openings, expressed as the 5% dose difference pass rate, with Pearson’s r-values of −0.94, −0.88, −0.84, −0.89, and −0.82, respectively. The overall trends for the 3% and 5% dose difference evaluations are similar. Conclusions: New complexity metrics are developed. The calculated scores correlate to the complexity of the created static MLC openings. The complexity of the MLC opening is dependent on the penumbra region relative to the area of the opening. The aperture-based complexity metrics that combined either the distances between the MLC leaves or the MLC opening circumference with the aperture area show the best correlation with the complexity of the static MLC openings.« less

Authors:
 [1]; ;  [2]
  1. Department of Radiation Physics, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg 413 45 (Sweden)
  2. Department of Therapeutic Radiation Physics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg 413 45 (Sweden)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22413610
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 42; Journal Issue: 7; Other Information: (c) 2015 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; APERTURES; COLLIMATORS; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; FILM DOSIMETRY; QUALITY ASSURANCE; RADIATION DOSE DISTRIBUTIONS; RADIATION DOSES; RADIOTHERAPY

Citation Formats

Götstedt, Julia, Karlsson Hauer, Anna, and Bäck, Anna, E-mail: anna.back@vgregion.se. Development and evaluation of aperture-based complexity metrics using film and EPID measurements of static MLC openings. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4921733.
Götstedt, Julia, Karlsson Hauer, Anna, & Bäck, Anna, E-mail: anna.back@vgregion.se. Development and evaluation of aperture-based complexity metrics using film and EPID measurements of static MLC openings. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4921733.
Götstedt, Julia, Karlsson Hauer, Anna, and Bäck, Anna, E-mail: anna.back@vgregion.se. 2015. "Development and evaluation of aperture-based complexity metrics using film and EPID measurements of static MLC openings". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4921733.
@article{osti_22413610,
title = {Development and evaluation of aperture-based complexity metrics using film and EPID measurements of static MLC openings},
author = {Götstedt, Julia and Karlsson Hauer, Anna and Bäck, Anna, E-mail: anna.back@vgregion.se},
abstractNote = {Purpose: Complexity metrics have been suggested as a complement to measurement-based quality assurance for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). However, these metrics have not yet been sufficiently validated. This study develops and evaluates new aperture-based complexity metrics in the context of static multileaf collimator (MLC) openings and compares them to previously published metrics. Methods: This study develops the converted aperture metric and the edge area metric. The converted aperture metric is based on small and irregular parts within the MLC opening that are quantified as measured distances between MLC leaves. The edge area metric is based on the relative size of the region around the edges defined by the MLC. Another metric suggested in this study is the circumference/area ratio. Earlier defined aperture-based complexity metrics—the modulation complexity score, the edge metric, the ratio monitor units (MU)/Gy, the aperture area, and the aperture irregularity—are compared to the newly proposed metrics. A set of small and irregular static MLC openings are created which simulate individual IMRT/VMAT control points of various complexities. These are measured with both an amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging device and EBT3 film. The differences between calculated and measured dose distributions are evaluated using a pixel-by-pixel comparison with two global dose difference criteria of 3% and 5%. The extent of the dose differences, expressed in terms of pass rate, is used as a measure of the complexity of the MLC openings and used for the evaluation of the metrics compared in this study. The different complexity scores are calculated for each created static MLC opening. The correlation between the calculated complexity scores and the extent of the dose differences (pass rate) are analyzed in scatter plots and using Pearson’s r-values. Results: The complexity scores calculated by the edge area metric, converted aperture metric, circumference/area ratio, edge metric, and MU/Gy ratio show good linear correlation to the complexity of the MLC openings, expressed as the 5% dose difference pass rate, with Pearson’s r-values of −0.94, −0.88, −0.84, −0.89, and −0.82, respectively. The overall trends for the 3% and 5% dose difference evaluations are similar. Conclusions: New complexity metrics are developed. The calculated scores correlate to the complexity of the created static MLC openings. The complexity of the MLC opening is dependent on the penumbra region relative to the area of the opening. The aperture-based complexity metrics that combined either the distances between the MLC leaves or the MLC opening circumference with the aperture area show the best correlation with the complexity of the static MLC openings.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4921733},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 7,
volume = 42,
place = {United States},
year = 2015,
month = 7
}
  • In intensity modulated radiation treatments (IMRT), the position of the field edges and the modulation within the beam are often achieved with a multileaf collimator (MLC). During the MLC calibration process, due to the finite accuracy of leaf position measurements, a systematic error may be introduced to leaf positions. Thereafter leaf positions of the MLC depend on the systematic error introduced on each leaf during MLC calibration and on the accuracy of the leaf position control system (random errors). This study presents and evaluates two methods to predict the systematic errors on the leaf positions introduced during the MLC calibration.more » The two presented methods are based on a series of electronic portal imaging device (EPID) measurements. A comparison with film measurements showed that the EPID could be used to measure leaf positions without introducing any bias. The first method, referred to as the 'central leaf method', is based on the method currently used at this center for MLC leaf calibration. It mimics the manner in which leaf calibration parameters are specified in the MLC control system and consequently is also used by other centers. The second method, a new method proposed by the authors and referred to as the ''individual leaf method,'' involves the measurement of two positions for each leaf (-5 and +15 cm) and the interpolation and extrapolation from these two points to any other given position. The central leaf method and the individual leaf method predicted leaf positions at prescribed positions of -11, 0, 5, and 10 cm within 2.3 and 1.0 mm, respectively, with a standard deviation (SD) of 0.3 and 0.2 mm, respectively. The individual leaf method provided a better prediction of the leaf positions than the central leaf method. Reproducibility tests for leaf positions of -5 and +15 cm were performed. The reproducibility was within 0.4 mm on the same day and 0.4 mm six weeks later (1 SD). Measurements at gantry angles of 0 deg., 90 deg., and 270 deg. for leaf positions of -5 and +15 cm showed no significant effect of gravity. The individual leaf method could be used in various applications to improve the accuracy of radiotherapy treatment from planning to delivery. Three cases are discussed: IMRT beam verification, MLC calibration and dose calcula0010ti.« less
  • Purpose: To commission and evaluate an in vivo EPID-based transit dosimetry software (EPIgray, DOSIsoft, Cachan, France) using simple fields and TG119-based IMRT treatment plans. Methods: EPIgray was commissioned on a Truebeam based on finite tissue-maximum ratio (fTMR) measurements with solid water blocks of thicknesses between 0 and 37 cm. Field sizes varied from 2×2 to 20×20 cm{sup 2}. Subsequently, treatment plans of single and opposed beams with field sizes between 4×4 and 15×15 cm{sup 2} as well as IMRT plans were measured to evaluate the dose reconstruction accuracy. Single field dose predictions were made for anterior-posterior and lateral beams. IMRTmore » plans were created based on TG119 recommendations. The reconstructed dose was compared to the planned dose for selected points at isocenter and away from isocenter. Results: For single square fields, the dose in EPIgray was reconstructed within 3% accuracy at isocenter relative to the planned dose. Similarly, the relative deviation of the total dose was accurately reconstructed within 3% for all IMRT plans with points placed inside a high dose region near the isocenter. Predictions became less accurate than 5% when the evaluation point was outside the majority of IMRT beam segments. Additionally, points 5 cm or more away from the isocenter or within an avoidance structure were predicted less reliably. Conclusion: EPIgray formalism accuracy is adequate for an efficient error detection system. It provides immediate intra-fractional feedback on the delivery of treatment plans without affecting the treatment beam. Besides the EPID, no additional hardware is required, which makes it accessible to all clinics. The software evaluates point dose measurements to verify treatment plan delivery and patient positioning within 5% accuracy, depending on the placement of evaluation points. EPIgray is not intended to replace patient-specific quality assurance but should be utilized as an additional layer of safety for continuous patient treatment verification. This research is supported by DOSIsoft.« less
  • Purpose: To improve the efficiency of atlas-based segmentation without compromising accuracy, and to demonstrate the validity of the proposed method on MRI-based prostate segmentation application. Methods: Accurate and efficient automatic structure segmentation is an important task in medical image processing. Atlas-based methods, as the state-of-the-art, provide good segmentation at the cost of a large number of computationally intensive nonrigid registrations, for anatomical sites/structures that are subject to deformation. In this study, the authors propose to utilize a combination of global, regional, and local metrics to improve the accuracy yet significantly reduce the number of required nonrigid registrations. The authors firstmore » perform an affine registration to minimize the global mean squared error (gMSE) to coarsely align each atlas image to the target. Subsequently, atarget-specific regional MSE (rMSE), demonstrated to be a good surrogate for dice similarity coefficient (DSC), is used to select a relevant subset from the training atlas. Only within this subset are nonrigid registrations performed between the training images and the target image, to minimize a weighted combination of gMSE and rMSE. Finally, structure labels are propagated from the selected training samples to the target via the estimated deformation fields, and label fusion is performed based on a weighted combination of rMSE and local MSE (lMSE) discrepancy, with proper total-variation-based spatial regularization. Results: The proposed method was applied to a public database of 30 prostate MR images with expert-segmented structures. The authors’ method, utilizing only eight nonrigid registrations, achieved a performance with a median/mean DSC of over 0.87/0.86, outperforming the state-of-the-art full-fledged atlas-based segmentation approach of which the median/mean DSC was 0.84/0.82 when applying to their data set. Conclusions: The proposed method requires a fixed number of nonrigid registrations, independent of atlas size, providing desirable scalability especially important for a large or growing atlas. When applied to prostate segmentation, the method achieved better performance to the state-of-the-art atlas-based approaches, with significant improvement in computation efficiency. The proposed rationale of utilizing jointly global, regional, and local metrics, based on the information characteristic and surrogate behavior for registration and fusion subtasks, can be extended naturally to similarity metrics beyond MSE, such as correlation or mutual information types.« less
  • Purpose: The aim of this study is to compare the sensitivity of different metrics to detect differences in complexity of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans following upgrades, changes to planning parameters, and patient geometry. Correlations between complexity metrics are also assessed. Method: A program was developed to calculate a series of metrics used to describe the complexity of IMRT fields using monitor units (MUs) and multileaf collimator files: Modulation index (MI), modulation complexity score (MCS), and plan intensity map variation (PIMV). Each metric, including the MUs, was used to assess changes in beam complexity for six prostate patients, followingmore » upgrades in the inverse planning optimization software designed to incorporate direct aperture optimization (DAO). All beams were delivered to a 2D ionization chamber array and compared to those calculated using gamma analysis. Each complexity metric was then calculated for all beams, on a different set of six prostate IMRT patients, to assess differences between plans calculated using different minimum field sizes and different maximum segment numbers. Different geometries, including CShape, prostate, and head and neck phantoms, were also assessed using the metrics. Correlations between complexity metrics were calculated for 20 prostate IMRT patients. Results: MU, MCS, MI, and PIMV could all detect reduced complexity following an upgrade to the optimization leaf sequencer, although only MI and MCS could detect a reduction in complexity when one-step optimization (DAO) was employed rather than two-step optimization. All metrics detected a reduction in complexity when the minimum field size was increased from 1 to 4 cm and all apart from PIMV detected reduced complexity when the number of segments was significantly reduced. All metrics apart from MI showed differences in complexity depending on the treatment site. Significant correlations exist between all metrics apart from MI and PIMV for prostate IMRT patients. Treatment deliverability appeared to be more correlated with MI and MCS than MU or PIMV. Conclusions: The application of complexity metrics in the IMRT treatment planning process has been demonstrated. Complexity of treatment plans can vary for different inverse planning software versions and can depend on planning parameters and the treatment site. MCS is most suitable for inclusion within the cost function to limit complexity in IMRT optimization due to its sensitivity to complexity changes and correlation to treatment deliverability.« less
  • Purpose: To examine the feasibility of using Varian’s EPID-based Machine Performance Check (MPC) system to track daily machine output through comparison with Sun Nuclear’s DailyQA3 (DQA) device. Methods: Daily machine outputs for two photon energies (6 and 16MV) and five electron energies (6, 9, 12, 16, 20MeV) were measured for one month using both MPC and DQA. Baselines measurements for MPC were taken at the start of the measurement series, while DQA baselines were set at an earlier date. In order to make absolute comparisons with MPC, all DQA readings were referenced to the average of the first three DQAmore » readings in that series, minimizing systematic differences between the measurement techniques due to baseline differences. In addition to daily output measurements, weekly averages were also calculated and compared. Finally, the electron energy dependence of each measurement technique was examined by comparing energy-specific measurements to the average electron output of all energies each day. Results: For 6 and 16MV photons, the largest absolute percent differences between MPC and DQA were 0.60% and 0.73%, respectively. Weekly averages were within 0.17% and 0.23%, respectively. For all five electron energies, the greatest absolute percent differences between MPC and DQA for each energy ranged from 0.49%–0.83%. Weekly averages ranged from 0.07%–0.28%. DQA energy-specific electron readings matched the average electron output within 0.29% for all days and all energies. MPC energy-specific readings matched the average within 0.21% for 9–20MeV. However, 6MeV showed a larger distribution about the average with four days showing a difference greater than 0.30% and a maximum difference of 0.51%. Conclusion: MPC output measurements correlated well with the widely-used DQA3 for most beam energies, making it a reliable back up technique for daily output monitoring. However, MPC may display an energy dependence for lower electrons energies, requiring additional investigation.« less