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Title: Evaluation of respiratory and cardiac motion correction schemes in dual gated PET/CT cardiac imaging

Abstract

Purpose: Cardiac imaging suffers from both respiratory and cardiac motion. One of the proposed solutions involves double gated acquisitions. Although such an approach may lead to both respiratory and cardiac motion compensation there are issues associated with (a) the combination of data from cardiac and respiratory motion bins, and (b) poor statistical quality images as a result of using only part of the acquired data. The main objective of this work was to evaluate different schemes of combining binned data in order to identify the best strategy to reconstruct motion free cardiac images from dual gated positron emission tomography (PET) acquisitions. Methods: A digital phantom study as well as seven human studies were used in this evaluation. PET data were acquired in list mode (LM). A real-time position management system and an electrocardiogram device were used to provide the respiratory and cardiac motion triggers registered within the LM file. Acquired data were subsequently binned considering four and six cardiac gates, or the diastole only in combination with eight respiratory amplitude gates. PET images were corrected for attenuation, but no randoms nor scatter corrections were included. Reconstructed images from each of the bins considered above were subsequently used in combination withmore » an affine or an elastic registration algorithm to derive transformation parameters allowing the combination of all acquired data in a particular position in the cardiac and respiratory cycles. Images were assessed in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast, image profile, coefficient-of-variation (COV), and relative difference of the recovered activity concentration. Results: Regardless of the considered motion compensation strategy, the nonrigid motion model performed better than the affine model, leading to higher SNR and contrast combined with a lower COV. Nevertheless, when compensating for respiration only, no statistically significant differences were observed in the performance of the two motion models considered. Superior image SNR and contrast were seen using the affine respiratory motion model in combination with the diastole cardiac bin in comparison to the use of the whole cardiac cycle. In contrast, when simultaneously correcting for cardiac beating and respiration, the elastic respiratory motion model outperformed the affine model. In this context, four cardiac bins associated with eight respiratory amplitude bins seemed to be adequate. Conclusions: Considering the compensation of respiratory motion effects only, both affine and elastic based approaches led to an accurate resizing and positioning of the myocardium. The use of the diastolic phase combined with an affine model based respiratory motion correction may therefore be a simple approach leading to significant quality improvements in cardiac PET imaging. However, the best performance was obtained with the combined correction for both cardiac and respiratory movements considering all the dual-gated bins independently through the use of an elastic model based motion compensation.« less

Authors:
;  [1];  [2];  [2]; ;  [3]; ;  [4];  [5]
  1. Univ. Bordeaux, INCIA, UMR 5287, F-33400 Talence (France)
  2. (France)
  3. INSERM, UMR1101, LaTIM, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, 29609 Brest (France)
  4. European Institute for Molecular Imaging, University of Münster, Mendelstr. 11, 48149 Münster (Germany)
  5. Vita-Salute University and Scientific Institute San Raffaele, Milan, Italy and CNR Istituto di Bioimmagini e Fisiologia Molecolare, Milan (Italy)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22412484
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 41; Journal Issue: 7; Other Information: (c) 2014 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; 60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; ALGORITHMS; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; ELECTROCARDIOGRAMS; MYOCARDIUM; PERFORMANCE; PHANTOMS; POSITRON COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY; RESPIRATION; SIGNAL-TO-NOISE RATIO

Citation Formats

Lamare, F., E-mail: frederic.lamare@chu-bordeaux.fr, Fernandez, P., CNRS, INCIA, UMR 5287, F-33400 Talence, Service de Médecine Nucléaire, Hôpital Pellegrin, CHU de Bordeaux, 33076 Bordeaux, Le Maitre, A., Visvikis, D., Dawood, M., Schäfers, K. P., and Rimoldi, O. E.. Evaluation of respiratory and cardiac motion correction schemes in dual gated PET/CT cardiac imaging. United States: N. p., 2014. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4881099.
Lamare, F., E-mail: frederic.lamare@chu-bordeaux.fr, Fernandez, P., CNRS, INCIA, UMR 5287, F-33400 Talence, Service de Médecine Nucléaire, Hôpital Pellegrin, CHU de Bordeaux, 33076 Bordeaux, Le Maitre, A., Visvikis, D., Dawood, M., Schäfers, K. P., & Rimoldi, O. E.. Evaluation of respiratory and cardiac motion correction schemes in dual gated PET/CT cardiac imaging. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4881099.
Lamare, F., E-mail: frederic.lamare@chu-bordeaux.fr, Fernandez, P., CNRS, INCIA, UMR 5287, F-33400 Talence, Service de Médecine Nucléaire, Hôpital Pellegrin, CHU de Bordeaux, 33076 Bordeaux, Le Maitre, A., Visvikis, D., Dawood, M., Schäfers, K. P., and Rimoldi, O. E.. Tue . "Evaluation of respiratory and cardiac motion correction schemes in dual gated PET/CT cardiac imaging". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4881099.
@article{osti_22412484,
title = {Evaluation of respiratory and cardiac motion correction schemes in dual gated PET/CT cardiac imaging},
author = {Lamare, F., E-mail: frederic.lamare@chu-bordeaux.fr and Fernandez, P. and CNRS, INCIA, UMR 5287, F-33400 Talence and Service de Médecine Nucléaire, Hôpital Pellegrin, CHU de Bordeaux, 33076 Bordeaux and Le Maitre, A. and Visvikis, D. and Dawood, M. and Schäfers, K. P. and Rimoldi, O. E.},
abstractNote = {Purpose: Cardiac imaging suffers from both respiratory and cardiac motion. One of the proposed solutions involves double gated acquisitions. Although such an approach may lead to both respiratory and cardiac motion compensation there are issues associated with (a) the combination of data from cardiac and respiratory motion bins, and (b) poor statistical quality images as a result of using only part of the acquired data. The main objective of this work was to evaluate different schemes of combining binned data in order to identify the best strategy to reconstruct motion free cardiac images from dual gated positron emission tomography (PET) acquisitions. Methods: A digital phantom study as well as seven human studies were used in this evaluation. PET data were acquired in list mode (LM). A real-time position management system and an electrocardiogram device were used to provide the respiratory and cardiac motion triggers registered within the LM file. Acquired data were subsequently binned considering four and six cardiac gates, or the diastole only in combination with eight respiratory amplitude gates. PET images were corrected for attenuation, but no randoms nor scatter corrections were included. Reconstructed images from each of the bins considered above were subsequently used in combination with an affine or an elastic registration algorithm to derive transformation parameters allowing the combination of all acquired data in a particular position in the cardiac and respiratory cycles. Images were assessed in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast, image profile, coefficient-of-variation (COV), and relative difference of the recovered activity concentration. Results: Regardless of the considered motion compensation strategy, the nonrigid motion model performed better than the affine model, leading to higher SNR and contrast combined with a lower COV. Nevertheless, when compensating for respiration only, no statistically significant differences were observed in the performance of the two motion models considered. Superior image SNR and contrast were seen using the affine respiratory motion model in combination with the diastole cardiac bin in comparison to the use of the whole cardiac cycle. In contrast, when simultaneously correcting for cardiac beating and respiration, the elastic respiratory motion model outperformed the affine model. In this context, four cardiac bins associated with eight respiratory amplitude bins seemed to be adequate. Conclusions: Considering the compensation of respiratory motion effects only, both affine and elastic based approaches led to an accurate resizing and positioning of the myocardium. The use of the diastolic phase combined with an affine model based respiratory motion correction may therefore be a simple approach leading to significant quality improvements in cardiac PET imaging. However, the best performance was obtained with the combined correction for both cardiac and respiratory movements considering all the dual-gated bins independently through the use of an elastic model based motion compensation.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4881099},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 7,
volume = 41,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Jul 15 00:00:00 EDT 2014},
month = {Tue Jul 15 00:00:00 EDT 2014}
}
  • Purpose: Despite multiple methodologies already proposed to correct respiratory motion in the whole PET imaging field of view (FOV), such approaches have not found wide acceptance in clinical routine. An alternative can be the local respiratory motion correction (LRMC) of data corresponding to a given volume of interest (VOI: organ or tumor). Advantages of LRMC include the use of a simple motion model, faster execution times, and organ specific motion correction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of LMRC using various motion models for oncology (lung lesion) applications. Methods: Both simulated (NURBS based 4D cardiac-torso phantom)more » and clinical studies (six patients) were used in the evaluation of the proposed LRMC approach. PET data were acquired in list-mode and synchronized with respiration. The implemented approach consists first in defining a VOI on the reconstructed motion average image. Gated PET images of the VOI are subsequently reconstructed using only lines of response passing through the selected VOI and are used in combination with a center of gravity or an affine/elastic registration algorithm to derive the transformation maps corresponding to the respiration effects. Those are finally integrated in the reconstruction process to produce a motion free image over the lesion regions. Results: Although the center of gravity or affine algorithm achieved similar performance for individual lesion motion correction, the elastic model, applied either locally or to the whole FOV, led to an overall superior performance. The spatial tumor location was altered by 89% and 81% for the elastic model applied locally or to the whole FOV, respectively (compared to 44% and 39% for the center of gravity and affine models, respectively). This resulted in similar associated overall tumor volume changes of 84% and 80%, respectively (compared to 75% and 71% for the center of gravity and affine models, respectively). The application of the nonrigid deformation model in LRMC led to over an order of magnitude gain in computational efficiency of the correction relative to the application of the deformable model to the whole FOV. Conclusions: The results of this study support the use of LMRC as a flexible and efficient correction approach for respiratory motion effects for single lesions in the thoracic area.« less
  • The introduction of positron emission/computed tomography (PET/CT) systems coupled with multidetector CT arrays has greatly increased the amount of clinical information in myocardial perfusion studies. The CT acquisition serves the dual role of providing high spatial anatomical detail and attenuation correction for PET. However, the differences between the interaction of respiratory and cardiac cycles in the CT and PET acquisitions presents a challenge when using the CT to determine PET attenuation correction. Three CT attenuation correction protocols were tested for their ability to produce accurate emission images: gated, a step mode acquisition covering the diastolic heart phase; normal, a high-pitchmore » helical CT; and slow, a low-pitch, low-temporal-resolution helical CT. The amount of cardiac tissue in the emission image that overlaid lung tissue in the transmission image was used as the measure of mismatch between acquisitions. Phantom studies simulating misalignment of the heart between the transmission and emission sequences were used to correlate the amount of mismatch with the artificial defect changes in the emission image. Consecutive patients were studied prospectively with either paired gated (diastolic phase, 120 kVp, 280 mA, 2.6 s) and slow CT (0.562:1 pitch, 120 kVp, Auto-mA, 16 s) or paired normal (0.938:1 pitch, 120 kVp, Auto-mA, 4.8 s) and slow CT protocols, prior to a Rb-82 perfusion study. To determine the amount of mismatch, the transmission and emission images were converted to binary representations of attenuating tissue and cardiac tissue and overlaid using their native registration. The number of cardiac tissue pixels from the emission image present in the CT lung field yielded the magnitude of misalignment represented in terms of volume, of where a small volume indicates better registration. Acquiring a slow CT improved registration between the transmission and emission acquisitions compared to the gated and normal CT protocols. The volume of PET cardiac tissue in the CT lung field was significantly lower (p<0.03) for the slow CT protocol in both the rest and stress emission studies. Phantom studies showed that an overlaying volume greater than 2.6 mL would produce significant artificial defects as determined by a quantitative software package that employs a normal database. The percentage of patient studies with overlaying volume greater than 2.6 mL was reduced from 71% with the normal CT protocol to 28% with the slow CT protocol. The remaining 28% exhibited artifacts consistent with heart drift and patient motion that could not be corrected by adjusting the CT acquisition protocol. The low pitch of the slow CT protocol provided the best match to the emission study and is recommended for attenuation correction in cardiac PET/CT studies. Further reduction in artifacts arising from cardiac drift is required and warrants an image registration solution.« less
  • Purpose: Respiratory-correlated positron emission tomography (PET/CT) 4D PET/CT is used to mitigate errors from respiratory motion; however, the optimal CT attenuation correction (CTAC) method for 4D PET/CT is unknown. The authors performed a phantom study to evaluate the quantitative performance of CTAC methods for 4D PET/CT in the ground truth setting. Methods: A programmable respiratory motion phantom with a custom movable insert designed to emulate a lung lesion and lung tissue was used for this study. The insert was driven by one of five waveforms: two sinusoidal waveforms or three patient-specific respiratory waveforms. 3DPET and 4DPET images of the phantommore » under motion were acquired and reconstructed with six CTAC methods: helical breath-hold (3DHEL), helical free-breathing (3DMOT), 4D phase-averaged (4DAVG), 4D maximum intensity projection (4DMIP), 4D phase-matched (4DMATCH), and 4D end-exhale (4DEXH) CTAC. Recovery of SUV{sub max}, SUV{sub mean}, SUV{sub peak}, and segmented tumor volume was evaluated as RC{sub max}, RC{sub mean}, RC{sub peak}, and RC{sub vol}, representing percent difference relative to the static ground truth case. Paired Wilcoxon tests and Kruskal–Wallis ANOVA were used to test for significant differences. Results: For 4DPET imaging, the maximum intensity projection CTAC produced significantly more accurate recovery coefficients than all other CTAC methods (p < 0.0001 over all metrics). Over all motion waveforms, ratios of 4DMIP CTAC recovery were 0.2 ± 5.4, −1.8 ± 6.5, −3.2 ± 5.0, and 3.0 ± 5.9 for RC{sub max}, RC{sub peak}, RC{sub mean}, and RC{sub vol}. In comparison, recovery coefficients for phase-matched CTAC were −8.4 ± 5.3, −10.5 ± 6.2, −7.6 ± 5.0, and −13.0 ± 7.7 for RC{sub max}, RC{sub peak}, RC{sub mean}, and RC{sub vol}. When testing differences between phases over all CTAC methods and waveforms, end-exhale phases were significantly more accurate (p = 0.005). However, these differences were driven by the patient-specific respiratory waveforms; when testing patient and sinusoidal waveforms separately, patient waveforms were significantly different between phases (p < 0.0001) while the sinusoidal waveforms were not significantly different (p = 0.98). When considering only the subset of 4DMATCH images that corresponded to the end-exhale image phase, 4DEXH, mean and interquartile range were similar to 4DMATCH but variability was considerably reduced. Conclusions: Comparative advantages in accuracy and precision of SUV metrics and segmented volumes were demonstrated with the use of the maximum intensity projection and end-exhale CT attenuation correction. While respiratory phase-matched CTAC should in theory provide optimal corrections, image artifacts and differences in implementation of 4DCT and 4DPET sorting can degrade the benefit of this approach. These results may be useful to guide the implementation, analysis, and development of respiratory-correlated thoracic PET/CT in the radiation oncology and diagnostic settings.« less
  • Purpose: Respiratory gating is commonly used to reduce blurring effects and attenuation correction artifacts in positron emission tomography (PET). Established clinically available methods that employ body-attached hardware for acquiring respiration signals rely on the assumption that external surface motion and internal organ motion are well correlated. In this paper, the authors present a markerless method comprising two Microsoft Kinects for determining the motion on the whole torso surface and aim to demonstrate its validity and usefulness—including the potential to study the external/internal correlation and to provide useful information for more advanced correction approaches. Methods: The data of two Kinects aremore » used to calculate 3D representations of a patient’s torso surface with high spatial coverage. Motion signals can be obtained for any position by tracking the mean distance to a virtual camera with a view perpendicular to the surrounding surface. The authors have conducted validation experiments including volunteers and a moving high-precision platform to verify the method’s suitability for providing meaningful data. In addition, the authors employed it during clinical {sup 18}F-FDG-PET scans and exemplarily analyzed the acquired data of ten cancer patients. External signals of abdominal and thoracic regions as well as data-driven signals were used for gating and compared with respect to detected displacement of present lesions. Additionally, the authors quantified signal similarities and time shifts by analyzing cross-correlation sequences. Results: The authors’ results suggest a Kinect depth resolution of approximately 1 mm at 75 cm distance. Accordingly, valid signals could be obtained for surface movements with small amplitudes in the range of only few millimeters. In this small sample of ten patients, the abdominal signals were better suited for gating the PET data than the thoracic signals and the correlation of data-driven signals was found to be stronger with abdominal signals than with thoracic signals (average Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.74 ± 0.17 and 0.45 ± 0.23, respectively). In all cases, except one, the abdominal respiratory motion preceded the thoracic motion—a maximum delay of approximately 600 ms was detected. Conclusions: The method provides motion information with sufficiently high spatial and temporal resolution. Thus, it enables meaningful analysis in the form of comparisons between amplitudes and phase shifts of signals from different regions. In combination with a large field-of-view, as given by combining the data of two Kinect cameras, it yields surface representations that might be useful in the context of motion correction and motion modeling.« less
  • Techniques have been developed for reducing motion blurring artifacts by using respiratory gated computed tomography (CT) in sinogram space and quantitatively evaluating the artifact reduction. A synthetic sinogram was built from multiple scans intercepting a respiratory gating window. A gated CT image was then reconstructed using the filtered back-projection algorithm. Wedge phantoms, developed for quantifying the motion artifact reduction, were scanned while being moved using a computer-controlled linear stage. The resulting artifacts appeared between the high and low density regions as an apparent feature with a Hounsfield value that was the average of the two regions. A CT profile throughmore » these regions was fit using two error functions, each modeling the partial-volume averaging characteristics for the unmoving phantom. The motion artifact was quantified by determining the apparent distance between the two functions. The blurring artifact had a linear relationship with both the speed and the tangent of the wedge angles. When gating was employed, the blurring artifact was reduced systematically at the air-phantom interface. The gated image of phantoms moving at 20 mm/s showed similar blurring artifacts as the nongated image of phantoms moving at 10 mm/s. Nine patients were also scanned using the synchronized respiratory motion technique. Image artifacts were evaluated in the diaphragm, where high contrast interfaces intercepted the imaging plane. For patients, this respiratory gating technique reduced the blurring artifacts by 9%-41% at the lung-diaphragm interface.« less