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Title: Prior data assisted compressed sensing: A novel MR imaging strategy for real time tracking of lung tumors

Abstract

Purpose: Hybrid radiotherapy-MRI devices promise real time tracking of moving tumors to focus the radiation portals to the tumor during irradiation. This approach will benefit from the increased temporal resolution of MRI's data acquisition and reconstruction. In this work, the authors propose a novel spatial-temporal compressed sensing (CS) imaging strategy for the real time MRI–-prior data assisted compressed sensing (PDACS), which aims to improve the image quality of the conventional CS without significantly increasing reconstruction times. Methods: Conventional 2D CS requires a random sampling of partial k-space data, as well as an iterative reconstruction that simultaneously enforces the image's sparsity in a transform domain as well as maintains the fidelity to the acquired k-space. PDACS method requires the additional acquisition of the prior data, and for reconstruction, it additionally enforces fidelity to the prior k-space domain similar to viewsharing. In this work, the authors evaluated the proposed PDACS method by comparing its results to those obtained from the 2D CS and viewsharing methods when performed individually. All three methods are used to reconstruct images from lung cancer patients whose tumors move and who are likely to benefit from lung tumor tracking. The patients are scanned, using a 3T MRI, undermore » free breathing using the fully sampled k-space with 2D dynamic bSSFP sequence in a sagittal plane containing lung tumor. These images form a reference set for the evaluation of the partial k-space methods. To create partial k-space, the fully sampled k-space is retrospectively undersampled to obtain a range of acquisition acceleration factors, and reconstructed with 2D-CS, PDACS, and viewshare methods. For evaluation, metrics assessing global image artifacts as well as tumor contour shape fidelity are determined from the reconstructed images. These analyses are performed both for the original 3T images and those at a simulated 0.5T equivalent noise level. Results: In the 3.0T images, the PDACS strategy is shown to give superior results compared to viewshare and conventional 2D CS using all metrics. The 2D-CS tends to perform better than viewshare at the low acceleration factors, while the opposite is true at the high acceleration factors. At simulated 0.5T images, PDACS method performs only marginally better than the viewsharing method, both of which are superior compared to 2D CS. The PDACS image reconstruction time (0.3 s/image) is similar to that of the conventional 2D CS. Conclusions: The PDACS method can potentially improve the real time tracking of moving tumors by significantly increasing MRI's data acquisition speeds. In 3T images, the PDACS method does provide a benefit over the other two methods in terms of both the overall image quality and the ability to accurately and automatically contour the tumor shape. MRI's data acquisition may be accelerated using the simpler viewsharing strategy at the lower, 0.5T magnetic field, as the marginal benefit of the PDACS method may not justify its additional reconstruction times.« less

Authors:
 [1]; ;  [2]; ;  [3];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [6]
  1. Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada)
  2. Department of Physics, University of Alberta, 11322 – 89 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G7, Canada and Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada)
  3. Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2, Canada and Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada)
  4. Department of Radiation Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2, Canada and Department of Oncology, Radiation Oncology Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada)
  5. Department of Physics, University of Alberta, 11322 – 89 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G7 (Canada)
  6. (Canada)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22409873
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 41; Journal Issue: 8; Other Information: (c) 2014 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; DATA ACQUISITION; IMAGE PROCESSING; LUNGS; NEOPLASMS; NMR IMAGING; PATIENTS; RADIOTHERAPY; RESPIRATION

Citation Formats

Yip, Eugene, Yun, Jihyun, Heikal, Amr A., Wachowicz, Keith, Rathee, Satyapal, Gabos, Zsolt, Fallone, B. G., E-mail: bfallone@ualberta.ca, Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2, and Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2. Prior data assisted compressed sensing: A novel MR imaging strategy for real time tracking of lung tumors. United States: N. p., 2014. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4885960.
Yip, Eugene, Yun, Jihyun, Heikal, Amr A., Wachowicz, Keith, Rathee, Satyapal, Gabos, Zsolt, Fallone, B. G., E-mail: bfallone@ualberta.ca, Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2, & Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2. Prior data assisted compressed sensing: A novel MR imaging strategy for real time tracking of lung tumors. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4885960.
Yip, Eugene, Yun, Jihyun, Heikal, Amr A., Wachowicz, Keith, Rathee, Satyapal, Gabos, Zsolt, Fallone, B. G., E-mail: bfallone@ualberta.ca, Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2, and Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2. Fri . "Prior data assisted compressed sensing: A novel MR imaging strategy for real time tracking of lung tumors". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4885960.
@article{osti_22409873,
title = {Prior data assisted compressed sensing: A novel MR imaging strategy for real time tracking of lung tumors},
author = {Yip, Eugene and Yun, Jihyun and Heikal, Amr A. and Wachowicz, Keith and Rathee, Satyapal and Gabos, Zsolt and Fallone, B. G., E-mail: bfallone@ualberta.ca and Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 and Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2},
abstractNote = {Purpose: Hybrid radiotherapy-MRI devices promise real time tracking of moving tumors to focus the radiation portals to the tumor during irradiation. This approach will benefit from the increased temporal resolution of MRI's data acquisition and reconstruction. In this work, the authors propose a novel spatial-temporal compressed sensing (CS) imaging strategy for the real time MRI–-prior data assisted compressed sensing (PDACS), which aims to improve the image quality of the conventional CS without significantly increasing reconstruction times. Methods: Conventional 2D CS requires a random sampling of partial k-space data, as well as an iterative reconstruction that simultaneously enforces the image's sparsity in a transform domain as well as maintains the fidelity to the acquired k-space. PDACS method requires the additional acquisition of the prior data, and for reconstruction, it additionally enforces fidelity to the prior k-space domain similar to viewsharing. In this work, the authors evaluated the proposed PDACS method by comparing its results to those obtained from the 2D CS and viewsharing methods when performed individually. All three methods are used to reconstruct images from lung cancer patients whose tumors move and who are likely to benefit from lung tumor tracking. The patients are scanned, using a 3T MRI, under free breathing using the fully sampled k-space with 2D dynamic bSSFP sequence in a sagittal plane containing lung tumor. These images form a reference set for the evaluation of the partial k-space methods. To create partial k-space, the fully sampled k-space is retrospectively undersampled to obtain a range of acquisition acceleration factors, and reconstructed with 2D-CS, PDACS, and viewshare methods. For evaluation, metrics assessing global image artifacts as well as tumor contour shape fidelity are determined from the reconstructed images. These analyses are performed both for the original 3T images and those at a simulated 0.5T equivalent noise level. Results: In the 3.0T images, the PDACS strategy is shown to give superior results compared to viewshare and conventional 2D CS using all metrics. The 2D-CS tends to perform better than viewshare at the low acceleration factors, while the opposite is true at the high acceleration factors. At simulated 0.5T images, PDACS method performs only marginally better than the viewsharing method, both of which are superior compared to 2D CS. The PDACS image reconstruction time (0.3 s/image) is similar to that of the conventional 2D CS. Conclusions: The PDACS method can potentially improve the real time tracking of moving tumors by significantly increasing MRI's data acquisition speeds. In 3T images, the PDACS method does provide a benefit over the other two methods in terms of both the overall image quality and the ability to accurately and automatically contour the tumor shape. MRI's data acquisition may be accelerated using the simpler viewsharing strategy at the lower, 0.5T magnetic field, as the marginal benefit of the PDACS method may not justify its additional reconstruction times.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4885960},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 8,
volume = 41,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Aug 15 00:00:00 EDT 2014},
month = {Fri Aug 15 00:00:00 EDT 2014}
}
  • Purpose: Prior Data Assisted Compressed Sensing (PDACS) is a partial k-space acquisition and reconstruction method for mobile tumour (i.e. lung) tracking using on-line MRI in radiotherapy. PDACS partially relies on prior data acquired at the beginning of dynamic scans, and is therefore susceptible to artifacts in longer duration scan due to slow drifts in MR signal. A novel sliding window strategy is presented to mitigate this effect. Methods: MRI acceleration is simulated by retrospective removal of data from the fully sampled sets. Six lung cancer patients were scanned (clinical 3T MRI) using a balanced steady state free precession (bSSFP) sequencemore » for 3 minutes at approximately 4 frames per second, for a total of 650 dynamics. PDACS acceleration is achieved by undersampling of k-space in a single pseudo-random pattern. Reconstruction iteratively minimizes the total variations while constraining the images to satisfy both the currently acquired data and the prior data in missing k-space. Our novel sliding window technique (SW-PDACS), uses a series of distinct pseudo-random under-sampling patterns of partial k-space – with the prior data drawn from a sliding window of the most recent data available. Under-sampled data, simulating 2 – 5x acceleration are reconstructed using PDACS and SW-PDACS. Three quantitative metrics: artifact power, centroid error and Dice’s coefficient are computed for comparison. Results: Quantitively metric values from all 6 patients are averaged in 3 bins, each containing approximately one minute of dynamic data. For the first minute bin, PDACS and SW-PDACS give comparable results. Progressive decline in image quality metrics in bins 2 and 3 are observed for PDACS. No decline in image quality is observed for SW-PDACS. Conclusion: The novel approach presented (SW-PDACS) is a more robust for accelerating longer duration (>1 minute) dynamic MRI scans for tracking lung tumour motion using on-line MRI in radiotherapy. B.G. Fallone is a co-founder and CEO of MagnetTx Oncology Solutions (under discussions to license Alberta bi-planar linac MR for commercialization).« less
  • Purpose: Compared to traditional radiotherapy techniques, stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) provides more favorable outcomes during the treatment of certain lung tumors. Despite advancements in image guidance, accurate target localization still remains a challenge. In this work, we expand our knowledge of a novel scatter imaging modality in order to develop a real-time tumor localization method using scattered photons from the patient during treatment. Methods: Images of the QUASAR™ Respiratory Motion Phantom were taken by irradiating it on a Varian TrueBeam accelerator. The scattered radiation was detected using a flat panel-based pinhole camera detection system. Two motion settings were investigated:more » static and dynamic. In the former, the lung tumor was manually shifted between imaging. In the latter, the lung tumor was set to move at a certain frequency and amplitude while the images were acquired continuously for one minute. The accuracy of tumor localization and the irradiation time required to distinguish the lung tumor were studied. Results: The comparison of measured and expected location of the lung tumor during static motion was shown to be under standard deviation (STD) of 0.064 with a mean STD of 0.031cm. The dynamic motion was taken at a rate of 1400 MU/min for one minute and the measured location of the lung tumor was then compared with the QUASAR phantom’s sinusoidal motion pattern and the agreement found to be at an average STD of 0.275cm. The location of the lung tumor was investigated using aggregate images consisting of 1 or 2 frames/image and the change was below STD of 0.30cm. The lung tumor also appeared to be blurrier in images consisting of two frames. Conclusion: Based on our preliminary results real-time image guidance using the scatter imaging modality to localize and track tumors during lung SBRT has the potential to become clinical reality.« less
  • Intrafraction target motion is a prominent complicating factor in the accurate targeting of radiation within the body. Methods compensating for target motion during treatment, such as gating and dynamic tumor tracking, depend on the delineation of target location as a function of time during delivery. A variety of techniques for target localization have been explored and are under active development; these include beam-level imaging of radio-opaque fiducials, fiducial-less tracking of anatomical landmarks, tracking of electromagnetic transponders, optical imaging of correlated surrogates, and volumetric imaging within treatment delivery. The Joint Imaging and Therapy Symposium will provide an overview of the techniquesmore » for real-time imaging and tracking, with special focus on emerging modes of implementation across different modalities. In particular, the symposium will explore developments in 1) Beam-level kilovoltage X-ray imaging techniques, 2) EPID-based megavoltage X-ray tracking, 3) Dynamic tracking using electromagnetic transponders, and 4) MRI-based soft-tissue tracking during radiation delivery. Learning Objectives: Understand the fundamentals of real-time imaging and tracking techniques Learn about emerging techniques in the field of real-time tracking Distinguish between the advantages and disadvantages of different tracking modalities Understand the role of real-time tracking techniques within the clinical delivery work-flow.« less
  • Purpose: This study assesses the potential of Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG)-based sensing for real-time needle (including catheter or tube) tracking during MR-guided HDR brachytherapy. Methods: The proposed FBG-based sensing tracking approach involves a MR-compatible stylet composed of three optic fibers with nine sets of embedded FBG sensors each. When the stylet is inserted inside the lumen of the needle, the FBG sensing system can measure the needle’s deflection. For localization of the needle in physical space, the position and orientation of the stylet base are mandatory. For this purpose, we propose to fix the stylet base and determine its positionmore » and orientation using a MR-based calibration as follows. First, the deflection of a needle inserted in a phantom in two different configurations is measured during simultaneous MR-imaging. Then, after segmentation of the needle shapes on the MR-images, the position and orientation of the stylet base is determined using a rigid registration of the needle shapes on both MR and FBG-based measurements. The calibration method was assessed by measuring the deflection of a needle in a prostate phantom in five different configurations using FBG-based sensing during simultaneous MR-imaging. Any two needle shapes were employed for the calibration step and the proposed FGB-tracking approach was subsequently evaluated on the other three needles configurations. The tracking accuracy was evaluated by computing the Euclidian distance between the 3D FBG vs. MR-based measurements. Results: Over all needle shapes tested, the average(standard deviation) Euclidian distance between the FBG and MR-based measurements was 0.79mm(0.37mm). The update rate and latency of the FBG-based measurements were 100ms and 300ms respectively. Conclusion: The proposed FBG-based protocol can measure the needle position with an accuracy, precision, update rate and latency eligible for accurate needle steering during MR-guided HDR brachytherapy. M. Borot de Battisti is funded by Philips Medical Systems Nederland B.V.; M. Moerland is principal investigator on a contract funded by Philips Medical Systems Nederland B.V.; G. Hautvast and D. Binnekamp are fulltime employees of Philips Medical Systems Nederland B.V.« less
  • Purpose: The development of MR-guided high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy is under investigation due to the excellent tumor and organs at risk visualization of MRI. However, MR-based localization of needles (including catheters or tubes) has inherently a low update rate and the required image interpretation can be hampered by signal voids arising from blood vessels or calcifications limiting the precision of the needle guidance and reconstruction. In this paper, a new needle tracking prototype is investigated using fiber Bragg gratings (FBG)-based sensing: this prototype involves a MR-compatible stylet composed of three optic fibers with nine sets of embedded FBG sensorsmore » each. This stylet can be inserted into brachytherapy needles and allows a fast measurement of the needle deflection. This study aims to assess the potential of FBG-based sensing for real-time needle (including catheter or tube) tracking during MR-guided intervention. Methods: First, the MR compatibility of FBG-based sensing and its accuracy was evaluated. Different known needle deflections were measured using FBG-based sensing during simultaneous MR-imaging. Then, a needle tracking procedure using FBG-based sensing was proposed. This procedure involved a MR-based calibration of the FBG-based system performed prior to the interventional procedure. The needle tracking system was assessed in an experiment with a moving phantom during MR imaging. The FBG-based system was quantified by comparing the gold-standard shapes, the shape manually segmented on MRI and the FBG-based measurements. Results: The evaluation of the MR compatibility of FBG-based sensing and its accuracy shows that the needle deflection could be measured with an accuracy of 0.27 mm on average. Besides, the FBG-based measurements were comparable to the uncertainty of MR-based measurements estimated at half the voxel size in the MR image. Finally, the mean(standard deviation) Euclidean distance between MR- and FBG-based needle position measurements was equal to 0.79 mm(0.37 mm). The update rate and latency of the FBG-based needle position measurement were 100 and 300 ms, respectively. Conclusions: The FBG-based needle tracking procedure proposed in this paper is able to determine the position of the complete needle, under MR-imaging, with better accuracy and precision, higher update rate, and lower latency compared to current MR-based needle localization methods. This system would be eligible for MR-guided brachytherapy, in particular, for an improved needle guidance and reconstruction.« less