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Title: Initial precipitation and hardening mechanism during non-isothermal aging in an Al–Mg–Si–Cu 6005A alloy

Abstract

The characterization of precipitation and hardening mechanism during non-isothermal aging had been investigated using high resolution transmission electron microscopy for an Al–Mg–Si–Cu 6005A alloy. It was proposed that the needle-shaped β″ precipitates with a three-dimension coherency strain-field and an increased number density in the Al matrix provided the maximum strengthening effect for the Al–Mg–Si–Cu 6005A alloy. Simultaneously, it was also found that the formation and evolution of clusters in the early precipitation were associated with the vacancy binding energy, during which Si atoms played an important role in controlling the numbers density of Mg/Si co-clusters, and the excess Si atoms provided the increased number of nucleation sites for the subsequent precipitates to strengthen and improve the precipitation rate. Finally, based on the experimental observation and theoretical analysis, the precipitation sequence during the early precipitation in the Al–Mg–Si–Cu 6005A alloy was proposed as: supersaturated solid solution → Si-vacancy pairs, Mg-vacancy pairs and Mg clusters → Si clusters, and dissolution of Mg clusters → Mg atoms diffusion into the existing Si clusters → Mg/Si co-clusters → GP zone. - Highlights: • β″ precipitates provide the maximum strengthening effect for the 6005A alloy. • Si atoms play an important role in controlling themore » numbers of Mg/Si co-clusters. • The early aging sequence is deduced based on the solute-vacancy binding energy.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4]; ; ;  [1]
  1. School of material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China)
  2. (BCAST), Brunel University, Uxbridge, UB8 3PH (United Kingdom)
  3. Brunel Centre for Advanced Solidification Technology (BCAST), Brunel University, Uxbridge, UB8 3PH (United Kingdom)
  4. State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22403529
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Materials Characterization; Journal Volume: 94; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2014 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; AGE HARDENING; AGING; ALUMINIUM ALLOYS; BINDING ENERGY; COPPER ALLOYS; DIFFUSION; MAGNESIUM ALLOYS; MICROSTRUCTURE; NUCLEATION; PRECIPITATION; SILICON ALLOYS; SOLID CLUSTERS; SOLID SOLUTIONS; SOLUTES; STRAINS; TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; VACANCIES

Citation Formats

Yang, Wenchao, E-mail: yangwenchao1985@163.com, Brunel Centre for Advanced Solidification Technology, Ji, Shouxun, Huang, Lanping, Sheng, Xiaofei, Li, Zhou, and Wang, Mingpu. Initial precipitation and hardening mechanism during non-isothermal aging in an Al–Mg–Si–Cu 6005A alloy. United States: N. p., 2014. Web. doi:10.1016/J.MATCHAR.2014.05.007.
Yang, Wenchao, E-mail: yangwenchao1985@163.com, Brunel Centre for Advanced Solidification Technology, Ji, Shouxun, Huang, Lanping, Sheng, Xiaofei, Li, Zhou, & Wang, Mingpu. Initial precipitation and hardening mechanism during non-isothermal aging in an Al–Mg–Si–Cu 6005A alloy. United States. doi:10.1016/J.MATCHAR.2014.05.007.
Yang, Wenchao, E-mail: yangwenchao1985@163.com, Brunel Centre for Advanced Solidification Technology, Ji, Shouxun, Huang, Lanping, Sheng, Xiaofei, Li, Zhou, and Wang, Mingpu. Fri . "Initial precipitation and hardening mechanism during non-isothermal aging in an Al–Mg–Si–Cu 6005A alloy". United States. doi:10.1016/J.MATCHAR.2014.05.007.
@article{osti_22403529,
title = {Initial precipitation and hardening mechanism during non-isothermal aging in an Al–Mg–Si–Cu 6005A alloy},
author = {Yang, Wenchao, E-mail: yangwenchao1985@163.com and Brunel Centre for Advanced Solidification Technology and Ji, Shouxun and Huang, Lanping and Sheng, Xiaofei and Li, Zhou and Wang, Mingpu},
abstractNote = {The characterization of precipitation and hardening mechanism during non-isothermal aging had been investigated using high resolution transmission electron microscopy for an Al–Mg–Si–Cu 6005A alloy. It was proposed that the needle-shaped β″ precipitates with a three-dimension coherency strain-field and an increased number density in the Al matrix provided the maximum strengthening effect for the Al–Mg–Si–Cu 6005A alloy. Simultaneously, it was also found that the formation and evolution of clusters in the early precipitation were associated with the vacancy binding energy, during which Si atoms played an important role in controlling the numbers density of Mg/Si co-clusters, and the excess Si atoms provided the increased number of nucleation sites for the subsequent precipitates to strengthen and improve the precipitation rate. Finally, based on the experimental observation and theoretical analysis, the precipitation sequence during the early precipitation in the Al–Mg–Si–Cu 6005A alloy was proposed as: supersaturated solid solution → Si-vacancy pairs, Mg-vacancy pairs and Mg clusters → Si clusters, and dissolution of Mg clusters → Mg atoms diffusion into the existing Si clusters → Mg/Si co-clusters → GP zone. - Highlights: • β″ precipitates provide the maximum strengthening effect for the 6005A alloy. • Si atoms play an important role in controlling the numbers of Mg/Si co-clusters. • The early aging sequence is deduced based on the solute-vacancy binding energy.},
doi = {10.1016/J.MATCHAR.2014.05.007},
journal = {Materials Characterization},
number = ,
volume = 94,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Aug 15 00:00:00 EDT 2014},
month = {Fri Aug 15 00:00:00 EDT 2014}
}
  • In situ electrical resistivity monitoring technique was employed to continuously evaluate the precipitate evolution of an Al–Zn–Mg–Cu-based commercial alloy during typical artificial aging treatments. The effects of artificial aging on the precipitates stability during non-isothermal heat treatments were also explored. Conventional hardness test, transmission electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry were also adopted to verify the electrical resistivity results. The results indicated that both the precipitation process and its timely rate could be followed by the monitored electrical resistivity during artificial aging treatments. The electrical resistivity results gave overall information on continuous precipitation and dissolution processes, especially under high heatingmore » rates. Samples artificial aging heat treated at 120 °C for 24 h followed by aging at 150 °C for 24 h presented more stable state and coarser precipitates than the samples only artificial aging heat treated at 120 °C for 24 h or triple artificial aging heat treated at 120 °C/24 h + 195 °C/15 min + 120 °/24 h. While the incoherent η precipitates in the samples artificial aging heat treated at 120 °C for 24 h followed by aging at 150 °C for 24 h were more easiness to coarsening and dissolve during non-isothermal heat treatments as well. - Highlights: • In situ electrical resistivity monitoring technique was employed on an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy. • The precipitate evolution during typical artificial aging treatments was studied. • The precipitate stability during non-isothermal heat treatments was explored. • The electrical resistivity wonderfully monitored continuous precipitation and dissolution. • The alloy submitted to a T7 treatment presents a more stable state during heating due to incoherent η precipitates.« less
  • The evolution of microstructure parameters (precipitate size and volume fraction) for an Al-8.0 Zn-2.05 Mg-1.76 Cu alloy during isothermal ageing has been studied by synchrotron-radiation small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) combining transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show that the precipitates are only a few nanometers even at higher temperature 160 deg. C up to 72 h (5.82 nm). The precipitate volume fraction reaches a plateau except ageing at 120 deg. C and the maximum is about 0.052-0.054 in the range 140-160 deg. C. Models describing the evolution of these two parameters with ageing temperature and time have been constructedmore » for our further predicting the precipitate hardening. The coarsening of precipitate is consistent with LSW (Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner) model even in the initial stage where volume fraction is still varying. The activation energy of coarsening regime has been determined to be about 1.25 {+-} 0.02 eV.« less
  • The precipitation hardening of an experimental Al-4.2 wt % Mg-0.6 wt % Cu alloy has been studied. After a first initial jump, the yield strength increases almost linearly with the logarithm of the ageing time and a peak of hardness is reached after 11 days at 180 C. Special attention is given to the precipitation hardening during the early stage of ageing. It has been shown that S{double_prime} phase can be formed heterogeneously on dislocation loops and helices and a new mechanism of precipitation hardening due to this S{double_prime} phase precipitation is proposed. The precipitation of S{double_prime} on dislocations ismore » the predominant cause of strengthening during the initial stage of precipitation hardening (up to 30 min at 180 C). Guinier-Preston-Bagaryatsky (GPB) zones (or better, the recently introduced Cu/Mg clusters) also appear in the initial stage, but their contribution to the hardness, which up to now as considered to be predominant, is shown to be smaller than the one of the S{double_prime} precipitates. Since the density of the S{double_prime} nucleation sites is related to the amount of dislocations, this mechanism is important in the case of a bake hardening treatment when ageing is preceded by cold deformation. Uniform S{double_prime} precipitation has also been found at the later ageing stage, which suggests that the contribution of S{double_prime} to the precipitation hardening at that stage is not less important.« less
  • The precipitation processes in a Cu-0.69Cr-0.10Zr-0.02Mg alloy aged at 450 °C and 550 °C have been investigated by transmission electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The precipitation sequence in this alloy aged at 450 °C is: supersaturated solid solution → Guinier–Preston zone (fcc Cr-rich phase) → ordered fcc Cr-rich phase → ordered bcc Cr-rich phase. The precipitation sequence in this alloy aged at 550 °C is: supersaturated solid solution → ordered fcc Cr-rich phase → ordered bcc Cr-rich phase. In the evolution of decomposition, the orientation relationship between the precipitates and the Cu matrix changes from cube-on-cube tomore » Nishiyama–Wassermann orientation. The ordering of Cr-rich precipitates facilitates the formation of the bcc precipitates and promotes the development of Nishiyama–Wassermann orientation. - Highlights: • Two different precipitation sequences in the Cu–Cr–Zr–Mg alloy are proposed. • The changes in orientation relationship of the precipitates are presented. • The roles of ordering and coherent interface of the precipitates are discussed.« less