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Title: Increased bismuth concentration in MBE GaAs{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x} films by oscillating III/V flux ratio during growth

Abstract

The authors have examined bismuth concentration profiles in GaAs{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x} films grown by molecular beam epitaxy using high angle annular dark field imaging (Z-contrast imaging) in an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope in conjunction with x-ray diffraction. Samples were grown with a gradient in each of the component fluxes, and therefore, the III/V ratio across the substrate. Rotating the sample during growth exposed the growth surface to an oscillating III/V flux ratio. Sinusoidal [Bi] profiles resulted in the growth direction, the wavelength and number of which were consistent with the growth rate and the rate of substrate rotation. However, the magnitude of [Bi] in the observed fluctuations was greater than the maximum [Bi] achieved using the same Bi flux and Ga/As flux ratios in steady-state conditions on a stationary substrate, suggesting that varying the III/V flux ratio during growth promotes the incorporation of Bi in GaAs{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x} films. A proposed qualitative model for how this enhancement might occur hypothesizes a critical role for alternating growth and shrinkage of Ga-Bi predroplet clusters on the surface as the growing material is rotated through Ga-rich and As-rich flux compositions.

Authors:
;  [1]; ;  [2]
  1. Materials Science and Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)
  2. Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27707 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22392180
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology. A, Vacuum, Surfaces and Films
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 33; Journal Issue: 3; Other Information: (c) 2015 American Vacuum Society; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Journal ID: ISSN 0734-2101
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; 42 ENGINEERING; ABUNDANCE; BISMUTH; FILMS; FLUCTUATIONS; GALLIUM ARSENIDES; MOLECULAR BEAM EPITAXY; ROTATION; SHRINKAGE; STEADY-STATE CONDITIONS; SUBSTRATES; SURFACES; TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; WAVELENGTHS; X-RAY DIFFRACTION

Citation Formats

Wood, Adam W., E-mail: awood4@wisc.edu, Babcock, Susan E., Li, Jincheng, and Brown, April S. Increased bismuth concentration in MBE GaAs{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x} films by oscillating III/V flux ratio during growth. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1116/1.4916575.
Wood, Adam W., E-mail: awood4@wisc.edu, Babcock, Susan E., Li, Jincheng, & Brown, April S. Increased bismuth concentration in MBE GaAs{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x} films by oscillating III/V flux ratio during growth. United States. doi:10.1116/1.4916575.
Wood, Adam W., E-mail: awood4@wisc.edu, Babcock, Susan E., Li, Jincheng, and Brown, April S. Fri . "Increased bismuth concentration in MBE GaAs{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x} films by oscillating III/V flux ratio during growth". United States. doi:10.1116/1.4916575.
@article{osti_22392180,
title = {Increased bismuth concentration in MBE GaAs{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x} films by oscillating III/V flux ratio during growth},
author = {Wood, Adam W., E-mail: awood4@wisc.edu and Babcock, Susan E. and Li, Jincheng and Brown, April S.},
abstractNote = {The authors have examined bismuth concentration profiles in GaAs{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x} films grown by molecular beam epitaxy using high angle annular dark field imaging (Z-contrast imaging) in an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope in conjunction with x-ray diffraction. Samples were grown with a gradient in each of the component fluxes, and therefore, the III/V ratio across the substrate. Rotating the sample during growth exposed the growth surface to an oscillating III/V flux ratio. Sinusoidal [Bi] profiles resulted in the growth direction, the wavelength and number of which were consistent with the growth rate and the rate of substrate rotation. However, the magnitude of [Bi] in the observed fluctuations was greater than the maximum [Bi] achieved using the same Bi flux and Ga/As flux ratios in steady-state conditions on a stationary substrate, suggesting that varying the III/V flux ratio during growth promotes the incorporation of Bi in GaAs{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x} films. A proposed qualitative model for how this enhancement might occur hypothesizes a critical role for alternating growth and shrinkage of Ga-Bi predroplet clusters on the surface as the growing material is rotated through Ga-rich and As-rich flux compositions.},
doi = {10.1116/1.4916575},
journal = {Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology. A, Vacuum, Surfaces and Films},
issn = {0734-2101},
number = 3,
volume = 33,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {5}
}