skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Integration of molecular-layer-deposited aluminum alkoxide interlayers into inorganic nanolaminate barriers for encapsulation of organic electronics with improved stress resistance

Abstract

Diffusion barrier stacks for the encapsulation of organic electronics made from inorganic nanolaminates of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} with aluminum alkoxide interlayers have been deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) and molecular layer deposition (MLD). As a part of the MLD process development, the deposition of aluminum alkoxide with low a density of about 1.7 g/cm{sup 3} was verified. The ALD/MLD diffusion barrier stack is meant to be deposited either on a polymer film, creating a flexible barrier substrate, or on top of a device on glass, creating a thin-film encapsulation. In order to measure the water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) through the barrier, the device is replaced by a calcium layer acting as a water sensor in an electrical calcium test. For the barrier stack applied as thin-film encapsulation on glass substrates, high resolution scanning electron microscopy investigations indicate that the inorganic nanolaminates without MLD interlayers are brittle as they crack easily upon the stress induced by the corroding calcium below. The introduction of up to three MLD interlayers of 12 nm each into the 48 nm barrier film laminate successfully mitigates stress issues and prevents the barrier from cracking. Using the three MLD interlayer configurations on glass, WVTRs ofmore » as low as 10{sup −5} g/m{sup 2}/d are measured at 38 °C and 32% relative humidity. On polymer barrier substrates, the calcium is evaporated onto the barrier stack and encapsulated with a cavity glass. In this configuration, the corroding calcium has space for expansion and gas release without affecting the underlying barrier film. In consequence, a WVTR of about 3 × 10{sup −3} g/m{sup 2}/d is measured for all samples independently of the number of MLD interlayers. In conclusion, a stabilization and preservation of the ALD barrier film against mechanical stress is achieved by the introduction of MLD interlayers into the inorganic nanolaminate.« less

Authors:
; ; ;  [1]; ; ; ;  [2]; ; ; ;  [3]
  1. Institute of Semiconductor and Microsystems Technology, Technische Universität Dresden, 01187 Dresden (Germany)
  2. Institut für Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany)
  3. Nanoelectronics Materials Laboratory NaMLab gGmbH, Nöthnitzer Str. 64, 01187 Dresden (Germany)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22392094
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology. A, Vacuum, Surfaces and Films; Journal Volume: 33; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: (c) 2014 American Vacuum Society; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 42 ENGINEERING; ALUMINIUM; ALUMINIUM OXIDES; CALCIUM; DEPOSITS; GLASS; LAYERS; NANOSTRUCTURES; POLYMERS; SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; STRESSES; SUBSTRATES; THIN FILMS; TITANIUM OXIDES; WATER VAPOR

Citation Formats

Hossbach, Christoph, E-mail: christoph.hossbach@tu-dresden.de, Fischer, Dustin, Albert, Matthias, Bartha, Johann W., Nehm, Frederik, E-mail: frederik.nehm@iapp.de, Klumbies, Hannes, Müller-Meskamp, Lars, Leo, Karl, Singh, Aarti, Richter, Claudia, Schroeder, Uwe, and Mikolajick, Thomas. Integration of molecular-layer-deposited aluminum alkoxide interlayers into inorganic nanolaminate barriers for encapsulation of organic electronics with improved stress resistance. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1116/1.4901232.
Hossbach, Christoph, E-mail: christoph.hossbach@tu-dresden.de, Fischer, Dustin, Albert, Matthias, Bartha, Johann W., Nehm, Frederik, E-mail: frederik.nehm@iapp.de, Klumbies, Hannes, Müller-Meskamp, Lars, Leo, Karl, Singh, Aarti, Richter, Claudia, Schroeder, Uwe, & Mikolajick, Thomas. Integration of molecular-layer-deposited aluminum alkoxide interlayers into inorganic nanolaminate barriers for encapsulation of organic electronics with improved stress resistance. United States. doi:10.1116/1.4901232.
Hossbach, Christoph, E-mail: christoph.hossbach@tu-dresden.de, Fischer, Dustin, Albert, Matthias, Bartha, Johann W., Nehm, Frederik, E-mail: frederik.nehm@iapp.de, Klumbies, Hannes, Müller-Meskamp, Lars, Leo, Karl, Singh, Aarti, Richter, Claudia, Schroeder, Uwe, and Mikolajick, Thomas. Thu . "Integration of molecular-layer-deposited aluminum alkoxide interlayers into inorganic nanolaminate barriers for encapsulation of organic electronics with improved stress resistance". United States. doi:10.1116/1.4901232.
@article{osti_22392094,
title = {Integration of molecular-layer-deposited aluminum alkoxide interlayers into inorganic nanolaminate barriers for encapsulation of organic electronics with improved stress resistance},
author = {Hossbach, Christoph, E-mail: christoph.hossbach@tu-dresden.de and Fischer, Dustin and Albert, Matthias and Bartha, Johann W. and Nehm, Frederik, E-mail: frederik.nehm@iapp.de and Klumbies, Hannes and Müller-Meskamp, Lars and Leo, Karl and Singh, Aarti and Richter, Claudia and Schroeder, Uwe and Mikolajick, Thomas},
abstractNote = {Diffusion barrier stacks for the encapsulation of organic electronics made from inorganic nanolaminates of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} with aluminum alkoxide interlayers have been deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) and molecular layer deposition (MLD). As a part of the MLD process development, the deposition of aluminum alkoxide with low a density of about 1.7 g/cm{sup 3} was verified. The ALD/MLD diffusion barrier stack is meant to be deposited either on a polymer film, creating a flexible barrier substrate, or on top of a device on glass, creating a thin-film encapsulation. In order to measure the water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) through the barrier, the device is replaced by a calcium layer acting as a water sensor in an electrical calcium test. For the barrier stack applied as thin-film encapsulation on glass substrates, high resolution scanning electron microscopy investigations indicate that the inorganic nanolaminates without MLD interlayers are brittle as they crack easily upon the stress induced by the corroding calcium below. The introduction of up to three MLD interlayers of 12 nm each into the 48 nm barrier film laminate successfully mitigates stress issues and prevents the barrier from cracking. Using the three MLD interlayer configurations on glass, WVTRs of as low as 10{sup −5} g/m{sup 2}/d are measured at 38 °C and 32% relative humidity. On polymer barrier substrates, the calcium is evaporated onto the barrier stack and encapsulated with a cavity glass. In this configuration, the corroding calcium has space for expansion and gas release without affecting the underlying barrier film. In consequence, a WVTR of about 3 × 10{sup −3} g/m{sup 2}/d is measured for all samples independently of the number of MLD interlayers. In conclusion, a stabilization and preservation of the ALD barrier film against mechanical stress is achieved by the introduction of MLD interlayers into the inorganic nanolaminate.},
doi = {10.1116/1.4901232},
journal = {Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology. A, Vacuum, Surfaces and Films},
number = 1,
volume = 33,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Jan 15 00:00:00 EST 2015},
month = {Thu Jan 15 00:00:00 EST 2015}
}