# Representing massive gravitons, as a way to quantify early universe magnetic field contributions to space-time, created by non linear electrodynamics

## Abstract

We review a relationship between cosmological vacuum energy and massive gravitons as given by Garattini and also the nonlinear electrodynamics of Camara et.al (2004) for a non singular universe and NLED. . In evaluating the Garattini result, we find that having the scale factor close to zero due to a given magnetic field value in, an early universe magnetic field affects how we would interpret Garattini’s linkage of the ‘cosmological constant’ value and non zero graviton mass.. We close as to how these initial conditions affect the issue of an early universe initial pressure and its experimental similarities and differences with results by Corda and Questa as to negative pressure at the surface of a star. Note, that in theDupays et.al. article , the star in question is rapidly spinning, which is not. assumed in the Camara et.al article , for an early universe. Also, Corda and Questa do not assume a spinning star. We conclude with a comparison between the Lagrangian Dupays and other authors bring up for non linear electrodynamics which is for rapidly spinning neutron stars , and a linkage between the Goldstone theorem and NLED. Our conclusion is for generalizing results seen in the Dupays neutronmore »

- Authors:

- Physics Department, Chongqing University, College of Physics, Chongqing University, Huxi Campus No. 55, Daxuechen Nanlu, Shapingba District, Chongqing 401331 (China)

- Publication Date:

- OSTI Identifier:
- 22391074

- Resource Type:
- Journal Article

- Journal Name:
- AIP Conference Proceedings

- Additional Journal Information:
- Journal Volume: 1648; Journal Issue: 1; Conference: ICNAAM-2014: International Conference on Numerical Analysis and Applied Mathematics 2014, Rhodes (Greece), 22-28 Sep 2014; Other Information: (c) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Journal ID: ISSN 0094-243X

- Country of Publication:
- United States

- Language:
- English

- Subject:
- 79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; COSMOLOGICAL CONSTANT; COSMOLOGY; DENSITY; ELECTRODYNAMICS; GRAVITATION; GRAVITONS; LAGRANGIAN FUNCTION; MAGNETIC FIELDS; MASS; NEUTRON STARS; NONLINEAR PROBLEMS; SPACE-TIME; SPIN; UNIVERSE

### Citation Formats

```
Beckwith, Andrew Walcott, E-mail: Rwill9955b@gmail.com.
```*Representing massive gravitons, as a way to quantify early universe magnetic field contributions to space-time, created by non linear electrodynamics*. United States: N. p., 2015.
Web. doi:10.1063/1.4912542.

```
Beckwith, Andrew Walcott, E-mail: Rwill9955b@gmail.com.
```*Representing massive gravitons, as a way to quantify early universe magnetic field contributions to space-time, created by non linear electrodynamics*. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4912542.

```
Beckwith, Andrew Walcott, E-mail: Rwill9955b@gmail.com. Tue .
"Representing massive gravitons, as a way to quantify early universe magnetic field contributions to space-time, created by non linear electrodynamics". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4912542.
```

```
@article{osti_22391074,
```

title = {Representing massive gravitons, as a way to quantify early universe magnetic field contributions to space-time, created by non linear electrodynamics},

author = {Beckwith, Andrew Walcott, E-mail: Rwill9955b@gmail.com},

abstractNote = {We review a relationship between cosmological vacuum energy and massive gravitons as given by Garattini and also the nonlinear electrodynamics of Camara et.al (2004) for a non singular universe and NLED. . In evaluating the Garattini result, we find that having the scale factor close to zero due to a given magnetic field value in, an early universe magnetic field affects how we would interpret Garattini’s linkage of the ‘cosmological constant’ value and non zero graviton mass.. We close as to how these initial conditions affect the issue of an early universe initial pressure and its experimental similarities and differences with results by Corda and Questa as to negative pressure at the surface of a star. Note, that in theDupays et.al. article , the star in question is rapidly spinning, which is not. assumed in the Camara et.al article , for an early universe. Also, Corda and Questa do not assume a spinning star. We conclude with a comparison between the Lagrangian Dupays and other authors bring up for non linear electrodynamics which is for rapidly spinning neutron stars , and a linkage between the Goldstone theorem and NLED. Our conclusion is for generalizing results seen in the Dupays neutron star Lagrangian with conditions which may confirm C. A. Escobar and L. F. Urrutia’s work on the Goldstone theorem and non linear electrodynamics, for some future projects we have in mind. If the universe does not spin, then we will stick with the density analogy given by adapting density as proportional to one over the fourth power of the minimum value of the scale factor as computed by adaptation of the Camara et.al.(2004) theory for non spinning universes. What may happen is that the Camara (2004) density and Quintessential density are both simultaneously satisfied, which would put additional restrictions on the magnetic field, which is one of our considerations, regardless if a universe spins, akin to spinning neutron stars. The spinning universe though may allow for easier reconciliation of the ‘Goldstone’ behavior of gravity and NLED though.},

doi = {10.1063/1.4912542},

journal = {AIP Conference Proceedings},

issn = {0094-243X},

number = 1,

volume = 1648,

place = {United States},

year = {2015},

month = {3}

}