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Title: Nanobeacon: A low cost time calibration instrument for the KM3NeT neutrino telescope

Abstract

The KM3NeT collaboration aims at the construction of a multi-km3 high-energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea consisting of a matrix of pressure resistant glass spheres holding each one a set (31) of small area photomultipliers. The main goal of the telescope is to observe cosmic neutrinos through the Cherenkov light induced in sea water by charged particles produced in neutrino interactions with the surrounding medium. A relative time calibration between photomultipliers of the order of 1 ns is required to achieve an optimal performance. Due to the high volume to be covered by KM3NeT, a cost reduction of the different systems is a priority. To this end a very low price calibration device, the so called Nanobeacon, has been designed and developed. At present one of such devices has already been integrated successfully at the KM3NeT telescope and eight of them in the Nemo Tower Phase II. In this article the main properties and operation of this device are described.

Authors:
 [1];
  1. IFIC. Instituto de Física Corpuscular, CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, C/Catedrático José Beltrán, 2. 46980 Paterna (Spain)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22390618
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: AIP Conference Proceedings; Journal Volume: 1630; Journal Issue: 1; Conference: VLVvT 13: 6. International Workshop on Very Large Volumte Neutrino Telescopes, Stockholm (Sweden), 5-7 Aug 2013; Other Information: (c) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; CALIBRATION; CHARGED PARTICLES; CHERENKOV COUNTERS; COOLING TOWERS; COSMIC NEUTRINOS; DESIGN; GLASS; MEDITERRANEAN SEA; NEUTRINO DETECTION; PERFORMANCE; PHOTOMULTIPLIERS; SCINTILLATION COUNTERS; SPHERES; TELESCOPE COUNTERS; VISIBLE RADIATION

Citation Formats

Calvo, David, and Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration. Nanobeacon: A low cost time calibration instrument for the KM3NeT neutrino telescope. United States: N. p., 2014. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4902791.
Calvo, David, & Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration. Nanobeacon: A low cost time calibration instrument for the KM3NeT neutrino telescope. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4902791.
Calvo, David, and Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration. Tue . "Nanobeacon: A low cost time calibration instrument for the KM3NeT neutrino telescope". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4902791.
@article{osti_22390618,
title = {Nanobeacon: A low cost time calibration instrument for the KM3NeT neutrino telescope},
author = {Calvo, David and Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration},
abstractNote = {The KM3NeT collaboration aims at the construction of a multi-km3 high-energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea consisting of a matrix of pressure resistant glass spheres holding each one a set (31) of small area photomultipliers. The main goal of the telescope is to observe cosmic neutrinos through the Cherenkov light induced in sea water by charged particles produced in neutrino interactions with the surrounding medium. A relative time calibration between photomultipliers of the order of 1 ns is required to achieve an optimal performance. Due to the high volume to be covered by KM3NeT, a cost reduction of the different systems is a priority. To this end a very low price calibration device, the so called Nanobeacon, has been designed and developed. At present one of such devices has already been integrated successfully at the KM3NeT telescope and eight of them in the Nemo Tower Phase II. In this article the main properties and operation of this device are described.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4902791},
journal = {AIP Conference Proceedings},
number = 1,
volume = 1630,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Nov 18 00:00:00 EST 2014},
month = {Tue Nov 18 00:00:00 EST 2014}
}
  • The KM3NeT collaboration aims at the construction of a multi-km3 high-energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea consisting of a matrix of pressure resistant glass spheres holding each a set (31) of small area photomultipliers. The main motivation of the telescope is to observe cosmic neutrinos through the Cherenkov light induced in sea water by charged particles produced in neutrino interactions with the surrounding medium. A relative time calibration between photomultipliers of the order of 1 ns is required to achieve an optimal performance. To this end, several time calibration subsystems have been developed. In this article, the proposal ofmore » a last generation Laser Beacon, to be used in KM3NeT and developed to measure and monitor the relative time offsets between photomultipliers, is presented.« less
  • The KM3NeT neutrino telescope will be composed by tens of thousands of glass spheres, called Digital Optical Module (DOM), each of them containing 31 PMTs of small photocathode area (3'). The readout and data acquisition system of KM3NeT have to collect, treat and send to shore, in an economic way, the enormous amount of data produced by the photomultipliers and at the same time to provide time synchronization between each DOM at the level of 1 ns. It is described in the present article the Central Logic Board, that integrates the Time to Digital Converters and the White Rabbit protocolmore » used for the DOM synchronization in a transparent way, the Power Board used in the DOM, the PMT base to readout the photomultipliers and the respective collecting boards, the so called Octopus Board.« less
  • The KM3NeT Consortium is currently carrying on a research and development activity to build a cubic kilometerscale neutrino telescope in the deep Mediterranean Sea. The KM3NeT Consortium follows on from the NEMO and NESTOR pilot projects, which have produced several prototypes and the ANTARES collaboration, which has built and is operating a 0.1 cubic kilometer volume deep-sea neutrino telescope. The KM3NeT Mediterranean neutrino telescope will complement the Antarctic Icecube observatory, allowing the complete survey of the sky using neutrinos as a probe. The main physics goals of KM3NeT include the detection of neutrinos from astrophysical sources such as active galacticmore » nuclei, supernova remnants and γ-ray bursts as well as the search for new physics, such as neutrino signals from neutralino annihilation. To achieve the best performance, an extensive optimisation process is underway, looking for the best geometrical configuration of the detector for maximum sensitivity, and evaluating the most reliable technical solutions to allow long-term, low-maintenance operations.« less
  • The absolute flux calibration of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be based on a set of stars observed by the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes. In order to cross-calibrate the two facilities, several A, G, and white dwarf stars are observed with both Spitzer and Hubble and are the prototypes for a set of JWST calibration standards. The flux calibration constants for the four Spitzer IRAC bands 1-4 are derived from these stars and are 2.3%, 1.9%, 2.0%, and 0.5% lower than the official cold-mission IRAC calibration of Reach et al., i.e., in agreement within their estimated errorsmore » of {approx}2%. The causes of these differences lie primarily in the IRAC data reduction and secondarily in the spectral energy distributions of our standard stars. The independent IRAC 8 {mu}m band-4 fluxes of Rieke et al. are about 1.5% {+-} 2% higher than those of Reach et al. and are also in agreement with our 8 {mu}m result.« less
  • The Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT, hereafter LAT), the primary instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) mission, is an imaging, wide field-of-view, high-energy {gamma}-ray telescope, covering the energy range from 20 MeV to more than 300 GeV. During the first years of the mission, the LAT team has gained considerable insight into the in-flight performance of the instrument. Accordingly, we have updated the analysis used to reduce LAT data for public release as well as the instrument response functions (IRFs), the description of the instrument performance provided for data analysis. In this paper, we describe the effects thatmore » motivated these updates. Furthermore, we discuss how we originally derived IRFs from Monte Carlo simulations and later corrected those IRFs for discrepancies observed between flight and simulated data. We also give details of the validations performed using flight data and quantify the residual uncertainties in the IRFs. Finally, we describe techniques the LAT team has developed to propagate those uncertainties into estimates of the systematic errors on common measurements such as fluxes and spectra of astrophysical sources.« less