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Title: Stand-off detection of HMX traces by active spectral imaging with a tunable CO{sub 2} laser

Abstract

Experimental results on stand-off detection of HMX traces at various surfaces using the method of active spectral imaging in the IR region are reported. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

Authors:
; ;  [1]
  1. Institute for Problems of Chemical and Energetic Technologies, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science (Russian Federation)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22375945
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Quantum Electronics (Woodbury, N.Y.); Journal Volume: 44; Journal Issue: 4; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; CARBON DIOXIDE LASERS; INFRARED SPECTRA; QUANTUM ELECTRONICS; SURFACES

Citation Formats

Pavlenko, A A, Maksimenko, E V, and Chernyshova, L V. Stand-off detection of HMX traces by active spectral imaging with a tunable CO{sub 2} laser. United States: N. p., 2014. Web. doi:10.1070/QE2014V044N04ABEH015334.
Pavlenko, A A, Maksimenko, E V, & Chernyshova, L V. Stand-off detection of HMX traces by active spectral imaging with a tunable CO{sub 2} laser. United States. doi:10.1070/QE2014V044N04ABEH015334.
Pavlenko, A A, Maksimenko, E V, and Chernyshova, L V. Mon . "Stand-off detection of HMX traces by active spectral imaging with a tunable CO{sub 2} laser". United States. doi:10.1070/QE2014V044N04ABEH015334.
@article{osti_22375945,
title = {Stand-off detection of HMX traces by active spectral imaging with a tunable CO{sub 2} laser},
author = {Pavlenko, A A and Maksimenko, E V and Chernyshova, L V},
abstractNote = {Experimental results on stand-off detection of HMX traces at various surfaces using the method of active spectral imaging in the IR region are reported. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)},
doi = {10.1070/QE2014V044N04ABEH015334},
journal = {Quantum Electronics (Woodbury, N.Y.)},
number = 4,
volume = 44,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Apr 28 00:00:00 EDT 2014},
month = {Mon Apr 28 00:00:00 EDT 2014}
}
  • The first instance of lasing of Hu lines of a new band in a sealed-off system using a standard LG-22 CO/sub 2/ laser is reported. (AIP)
  • The gains measured at the centres of vibrational - rotational lines of the main bands of the CO{sub 2} molecule were used to determine, by the least-squares method, the populations of the laser-active levels and the vibrational temperatures of the active medium of a cw electric-discharge CO{sub 2} laser. (lasers, active media)
  • We demonstrate a 2-GHz tunability of the 385-..mu..m stimulated Raman transition of D/sub 2/O vapor optically pumped by the 9R (22) transition of a tunable single-mode CO/sub 2/ TEA laser. Power levels of up to 800 kW in 100-nsec pulses and conversion efficiency of CO/sub 2/ laser energy to D/sub 2/O laser energy at 385 ..mu..m of up to 0.4% have been obtained with a D/sub 2/O oscillator cavity. The TEA CO/sub 2/ pump laser, which consists of a grating and etalon tuned oscillator followed by an amplifier chain, produced 25-J 100-nsec single-mode pulses and was tunable +- 1 GHzmore » around the 9R (22) line center. The present results indicate that tunable single-mode pump lasers are necessary in order to optimize high-power optically pumped laser systems and to produce narrow-linewidth spectral characteristics.« less
  • The emission from an HF (DF) laser is spread over a large number of vibrational-rotational lines in the range 2.7-4.2 ..mu..m, which contains absorption bands of virtually all substances of interesting quantitative gas analysis, and in particular, detecting atmospheric pollutants, determining discharges from industrial plants, locating deposits of certain minerals, forecasting volcanic activity, and so on. Pulsed chemical HF (DF) lasers can be based on the chain reaction of fluorine with hydrogen (deuterium), which is promising for these purposes because the number of lines is large by comparison with any other type of laser (about 100 lines). These lasers alsomore » have high efficiency in converting the pumping energy to radiation and high beam power with relatively small dimensions and the same laser cell can be used to obtain the emission from carbon dioxide in the range 9.6-10.6 ..mu..m by energy transfer from DF to carbon dioxide. It is necessary to know the absorption characteristics of the substances at the lines of the HF (DF) laser. In this paper, the authors report measured cross sections for carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide, and carbon hydrogenate, in the form of minor impurities in the air (about 1-10%) for various lines from an HF laser. The authors compare the data with published values, while the available spectroscopic characteristics are used in theoretical calculations of the absorption cross section and compared with the experiment.« less
  • To study the chemical structure of the HMX flame, species and temperature profiles were measured in the gas phase at heat fluxes of 100 and 300 W/cm{sup 2}. A microprobe/triple quadrupole mass spectrometer was used to measure quantitative species profiles, and fine wire thermocouples were used to measure temperature profiles. The flame and surface structures were observed using a high-magnification video system. The major species at the surface were H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 2}O, HCN, NO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, N{sub 2}, CO, and NO at atmospheric pressure with both heat fluxes. There was no CO{sub 2} existing at the surface. Themore » mole fraction of triazine was found to be approximately 2.5% at the surface, which has not been reported during combustion of HMX. The species could play an important role in the gas phase chemistry. The species profiles showed two-stage reaction zones. The species profiles also showed that increasing heat flux stretched the secondary reaction zone, but did not stretch the primary reaction zone. No plateau at a typical dark zone temperature was observed for either heat flux. Finally, the temperature profiles in the gas phase and species concentrations obtained at the surface with heat fluxes of 100 and 300 W/cm{sup 2} were used as inputs to a 1-D gas-phase flame model. Disagreement between the model and experiments for stable species was observed and investigated in detail.« less