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Title: The Kepler-10 planetary system revisited by HARPS-N: A hot rocky world and a solid Neptune-mass planet

Abstract

Kepler-10b was the first rocky planet detected by the Kepler satellite and confirmed with radial velocity follow-up observations from Keck-HIRES. The mass of the planet was measured with a precision of around 30%, which was insufficient to constrain models of its internal structure and composition in detail. In addition to Kepler-10b, a second planet transiting the same star with a period of 45 days was statistically validated, but the radial velocities were only good enough to set an upper limit of 20 M{sub ⊕} for the mass of Kepler-10c. To improve the precision on the mass for planet b, the HARPS-N Collaboration decided to observe Kepler-10 intensively with the HARPS-N spectrograph on the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo on La Palma. In total, 148 high-quality radial-velocity measurements were obtained over two observing seasons. These new data allow us to improve the precision of the mass determination for Kepler-10b to 15%. With a mass of 3.33 ± 0.49 M{sub ⊕} and an updated radius of 1.47{sub −0.02}{sup +0.03} R{sub ⊕}, Kepler-10b has a density of 5.8 ± 0.8 g cm{sup –3}, very close to the value predicted by models with the same internal structure and composition as the Earth. We were also ablemore » to determine a mass for the 45-day period planet Kepler-10c, with an even better precision of 11%. With a mass of 17.2 ± 1.9 M{sub ⊕} and radius of 2.35{sub −0.04}{sup +0.09} R{sub ⊕}, Kepler-10c has a density of 7.1 ± 1.0 g cm{sup –3}. Kepler-10c appears to be the first strong evidence of a class of more massive solid planets with longer orbital periods.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ;  [1];  [2]; ; ;  [3];  [4]; ; ;  [5]; ; ; ;  [6];  [7] more »; « less
  1. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)
  2. INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese (Italy)
  3. SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)
  4. Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia "Galileo Galilei," Universita'di Padova, Vicolo dell'Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padova (Italy)
  5. Observatoire Astronomique de l'Université de Genève, 51 ch. des Maillettes, CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland)
  6. INAF - Fundacin Galileo Galilei, Rambla Jos Ana Fernandez Prez 7, E-38712 Brea Baja (Spain)
  7. Centro de Astrofìsica, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22365690
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal; Journal Volume: 789; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; ACCURACY; DENSITY; GLOBAL ASPECTS; MASS; RADIAL VELOCITY; SATELLITES; STARS; STATISTICS

Citation Formats

Dumusque, Xavier, Buchhave, Lars A., Latham, David W., Charbonneau, David, Dressing, Courtney D., Gettel, Sara, Lopez-Morales, Mercedes, Bonomo, Aldo S., Haywood, Raphaëlle D., Cameron, Andrew Collier, Horne, Keith, Malavolta, Luca, Ségransan, Damien, Pepe, Francesco, Udry, Stéphane, Molinari, Emilio, Cosentino, Rosario, Fiorenzano, Aldo F. M., Harutyunyan, Avet, Figueira, Pedro, E-mail: xdumusque@cfa.harvard.edu, and and others. The Kepler-10 planetary system revisited by HARPS-N: A hot rocky world and a solid Neptune-mass planet. United States: N. p., 2014. Web. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/789/2/154.
Dumusque, Xavier, Buchhave, Lars A., Latham, David W., Charbonneau, David, Dressing, Courtney D., Gettel, Sara, Lopez-Morales, Mercedes, Bonomo, Aldo S., Haywood, Raphaëlle D., Cameron, Andrew Collier, Horne, Keith, Malavolta, Luca, Ségransan, Damien, Pepe, Francesco, Udry, Stéphane, Molinari, Emilio, Cosentino, Rosario, Fiorenzano, Aldo F. M., Harutyunyan, Avet, Figueira, Pedro, E-mail: xdumusque@cfa.harvard.edu, & and others. The Kepler-10 planetary system revisited by HARPS-N: A hot rocky world and a solid Neptune-mass planet. United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/789/2/154.
Dumusque, Xavier, Buchhave, Lars A., Latham, David W., Charbonneau, David, Dressing, Courtney D., Gettel, Sara, Lopez-Morales, Mercedes, Bonomo, Aldo S., Haywood, Raphaëlle D., Cameron, Andrew Collier, Horne, Keith, Malavolta, Luca, Ségransan, Damien, Pepe, Francesco, Udry, Stéphane, Molinari, Emilio, Cosentino, Rosario, Fiorenzano, Aldo F. M., Harutyunyan, Avet, Figueira, Pedro, E-mail: xdumusque@cfa.harvard.edu, and and others. Thu . "The Kepler-10 planetary system revisited by HARPS-N: A hot rocky world and a solid Neptune-mass planet". United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/789/2/154.
@article{osti_22365690,
title = {The Kepler-10 planetary system revisited by HARPS-N: A hot rocky world and a solid Neptune-mass planet},
author = {Dumusque, Xavier and Buchhave, Lars A. and Latham, David W. and Charbonneau, David and Dressing, Courtney D. and Gettel, Sara and Lopez-Morales, Mercedes and Bonomo, Aldo S. and Haywood, Raphaëlle D. and Cameron, Andrew Collier and Horne, Keith and Malavolta, Luca and Ségransan, Damien and Pepe, Francesco and Udry, Stéphane and Molinari, Emilio and Cosentino, Rosario and Fiorenzano, Aldo F. M. and Harutyunyan, Avet and Figueira, Pedro, E-mail: xdumusque@cfa.harvard.edu and and others},
abstractNote = {Kepler-10b was the first rocky planet detected by the Kepler satellite and confirmed with radial velocity follow-up observations from Keck-HIRES. The mass of the planet was measured with a precision of around 30%, which was insufficient to constrain models of its internal structure and composition in detail. In addition to Kepler-10b, a second planet transiting the same star with a period of 45 days was statistically validated, but the radial velocities were only good enough to set an upper limit of 20 M{sub ⊕} for the mass of Kepler-10c. To improve the precision on the mass for planet b, the HARPS-N Collaboration decided to observe Kepler-10 intensively with the HARPS-N spectrograph on the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo on La Palma. In total, 148 high-quality radial-velocity measurements were obtained over two observing seasons. These new data allow us to improve the precision of the mass determination for Kepler-10b to 15%. With a mass of 3.33 ± 0.49 M{sub ⊕} and an updated radius of 1.47{sub −0.02}{sup +0.03} R{sub ⊕}, Kepler-10b has a density of 5.8 ± 0.8 g cm{sup –3}, very close to the value predicted by models with the same internal structure and composition as the Earth. We were also able to determine a mass for the 45-day period planet Kepler-10c, with an even better precision of 11%. With a mass of 17.2 ± 1.9 M{sub ⊕} and radius of 2.35{sub −0.04}{sup +0.09} R{sub ⊕}, Kepler-10c has a density of 7.1 ± 1.0 g cm{sup –3}. Kepler-10c appears to be the first strong evidence of a class of more massive solid planets with longer orbital periods.},
doi = {10.1088/0004-637X/789/2/154},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal},
number = 2,
volume = 789,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Jul 10 00:00:00 EDT 2014},
month = {Thu Jul 10 00:00:00 EDT 2014}
}