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Title: Observations of environmental quenching in groups in the 11 Gyr since z = 2.5: Different quenching for central and satellite galaxies

Abstract

We present direct observational evidence for star formation quenching in galaxy groups in the redshift range 0 < z < 2.5. We utilize a large sample of nearly 6000 groups, selected by fixed cumulative number density from three photometric catalogs, to follow the evolving quiescent fractions of central and satellite galaxies over roughly 11 Gyr. At z ∼ 0, central galaxies in our sample range in stellar mass from Milky Way/M31 analogs (M{sub *}/M{sub ☉} = 6.5 × 10{sup 10}) to nearby massive ellipticals (M{sub *}/M{sub ☉} = 1.5 × 10{sup 11}). Satellite galaxies in the same groups reach masses as low as twice that of the Large Magellanic Cloud (M{sub *}/M{sub ☉} = 6.5 × 10{sup 9}). Using statistical background subtraction, we measure the average rest-frame colors of galaxies in our groups and calculate the evolving quiescent fractions of centrals and satellites over seven redshift bins. Our analysis shows clear evidence for star formation quenching in group halos, with a different quenching onset for centrals and their satellite galaxies. Using halo mass estimates for our central galaxies, we find that star formation shuts off in centrals when typical halo masses reach between 10{sup 12} and 10{sup 13} M{sub ☉},more » consistent with predictions from the halo quenching model. In contrast, satellite galaxies in the same groups most likely undergo quenching by environmental processes, whose onset is delayed with respect to their central galaxy. Although star formation is suppressed in all galaxies over time, the processes that govern quenching are different for centrals and satellites. While mass plays an important role in determining the star formation activity of central galaxies, quenching in satellite galaxies is dominated by the environment in which they reside.« less

Authors:
; ;  [1];  [2]; ; ; ; ;  [3]; ;  [4];  [5];  [6]; ;  [7];  [8];  [9];  [10];  [11]
  1. UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)
  2. Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)
  3. Yale University Astronomy Department, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States)
  4. Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)
  5. Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)
  6. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States)
  7. Carnegie Observatories, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)
  8. Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)
  9. South African Astronomical Observatory, Observatory Road, Cape Town (South Africa)
  10. Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)
  11. Astrophysics Science Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22365653
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal; Journal Volume: 789; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; COLOR; DENSITY; EVOLUTION; FORECASTING; MAGELLANIC CLOUDS; MASS; MILKY WAY; PHOTOMETRY; QUENCHING; RED SHIFT; SATELLITES; STARS

Citation Formats

Tal, Tomer, Illingworth, Garth D., Magee, Daniel, Dekel, Avishai, Oesch, Pascal, Van Dokkum, Pieter G., Leja, Joel, Momcheva, Ivelina, Nelson, Erica J., Muzzin, Adam, Franx, Marijn, Brammer, Gabriel B., Marchesini, Danilo, Patel, Shannon G., Quadri, Ryan F., Rix, Hans-Walter, Skelton, Rosalind E., Wake, David A., and Whitaker, Katherine E., E-mail: tal@ucolick.org. Observations of environmental quenching in groups in the 11 Gyr since z = 2.5: Different quenching for central and satellite galaxies. United States: N. p., 2014. Web. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/789/2/164.
Tal, Tomer, Illingworth, Garth D., Magee, Daniel, Dekel, Avishai, Oesch, Pascal, Van Dokkum, Pieter G., Leja, Joel, Momcheva, Ivelina, Nelson, Erica J., Muzzin, Adam, Franx, Marijn, Brammer, Gabriel B., Marchesini, Danilo, Patel, Shannon G., Quadri, Ryan F., Rix, Hans-Walter, Skelton, Rosalind E., Wake, David A., & Whitaker, Katherine E., E-mail: tal@ucolick.org. Observations of environmental quenching in groups in the 11 Gyr since z = 2.5: Different quenching for central and satellite galaxies. United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/789/2/164.
Tal, Tomer, Illingworth, Garth D., Magee, Daniel, Dekel, Avishai, Oesch, Pascal, Van Dokkum, Pieter G., Leja, Joel, Momcheva, Ivelina, Nelson, Erica J., Muzzin, Adam, Franx, Marijn, Brammer, Gabriel B., Marchesini, Danilo, Patel, Shannon G., Quadri, Ryan F., Rix, Hans-Walter, Skelton, Rosalind E., Wake, David A., and Whitaker, Katherine E., E-mail: tal@ucolick.org. Thu . "Observations of environmental quenching in groups in the 11 Gyr since z = 2.5: Different quenching for central and satellite galaxies". United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/789/2/164.
@article{osti_22365653,
title = {Observations of environmental quenching in groups in the 11 Gyr since z = 2.5: Different quenching for central and satellite galaxies},
author = {Tal, Tomer and Illingworth, Garth D. and Magee, Daniel and Dekel, Avishai and Oesch, Pascal and Van Dokkum, Pieter G. and Leja, Joel and Momcheva, Ivelina and Nelson, Erica J. and Muzzin, Adam and Franx, Marijn and Brammer, Gabriel B. and Marchesini, Danilo and Patel, Shannon G. and Quadri, Ryan F. and Rix, Hans-Walter and Skelton, Rosalind E. and Wake, David A. and Whitaker, Katherine E., E-mail: tal@ucolick.org},
abstractNote = {We present direct observational evidence for star formation quenching in galaxy groups in the redshift range 0 < z < 2.5. We utilize a large sample of nearly 6000 groups, selected by fixed cumulative number density from three photometric catalogs, to follow the evolving quiescent fractions of central and satellite galaxies over roughly 11 Gyr. At z ∼ 0, central galaxies in our sample range in stellar mass from Milky Way/M31 analogs (M{sub *}/M{sub ☉} = 6.5 × 10{sup 10}) to nearby massive ellipticals (M{sub *}/M{sub ☉} = 1.5 × 10{sup 11}). Satellite galaxies in the same groups reach masses as low as twice that of the Large Magellanic Cloud (M{sub *}/M{sub ☉} = 6.5 × 10{sup 9}). Using statistical background subtraction, we measure the average rest-frame colors of galaxies in our groups and calculate the evolving quiescent fractions of centrals and satellites over seven redshift bins. Our analysis shows clear evidence for star formation quenching in group halos, with a different quenching onset for centrals and their satellite galaxies. Using halo mass estimates for our central galaxies, we find that star formation shuts off in centrals when typical halo masses reach between 10{sup 12} and 10{sup 13} M{sub ☉}, consistent with predictions from the halo quenching model. In contrast, satellite galaxies in the same groups most likely undergo quenching by environmental processes, whose onset is delayed with respect to their central galaxy. Although star formation is suppressed in all galaxies over time, the processes that govern quenching are different for centrals and satellites. While mass plays an important role in determining the star formation activity of central galaxies, quenching in satellite galaxies is dominated by the environment in which they reside.},
doi = {10.1088/0004-637X/789/2/164},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal},
number = 2,
volume = 789,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Jul 10 00:00:00 EDT 2014},
month = {Thu Jul 10 00:00:00 EDT 2014}
}
  • Using the science verification data of the Dark Energy Survey for a new sample of 106 X-ray selected clusters and groups, we study the stellar mass growth of bright central galaxies (BCGs) since redshift z similar to 1.2. Compared with the expectation in a semi-analytical model applied to the Millennium Simulation, the observed BCGs become under-massive/under-luminous with decreasing redshift. We incorporate the uncertainties associated with cluster mass, redshift, and BCG stellar mass measurements into an analysis of a redshift-dependent BCG-cluster mass relation, m(*) proportional to (M-200/1.5 x 10(14)M(circle dot))(0.24 +/- 0.08)(1+z)(-0.19 +/- 0.34), and compare the observed relation to themore » model prediction. We estimate the average growth rate since z = 1.0 for BCGs hosted by clusters of M-200,M-z = 10(13.8)M(circle dot); at z = 1.0: m(*, BCG) appears to have grown by 0.13 +/- 0.11 dex, in tension at the similar to 2.5 sigma significance level with the 0.40 dex growth rate expected from the semi-analytic model. We show that the build-up of extended intracluster light after z = 1.0 may alleviate this tension in BCG growth rates.« less
  • Using the science verification data of the Dark Energy Survey for a new sample of 106 X-ray selected clusters and groups, we study the stellar mass growth of bright central galaxies (BCGs) since redshift z ~ 1.2. Compared with the expectation in a semi-analytical model applied to the Millennium Simulation, the observed BCGs become under-massive/under-luminous with decreasing redshift. We incorporate the uncertainties associated with cluster mass, redshift, and BCG stellar mass measurements into analysis of a redshift-dependent BCG-cluster mass relation.
  • Here, using the science verification data of the Dark Energy Survey for a new sample of 106 X-ray selected clusters and groups, we study the stellar mass growth of bright central galaxies (BCGs) since redshift z ~ 1.2. Compared with the expectation in a semi-analytical model applied to the Millennium Simulation, the observed BCGs become under-massive/under-luminous with decreasing redshift.
  • Satellite galaxies in rich clusters are subject to numerous physical processes that can significantly influence their evolution. However, the typical L* satellite galaxy resides in much lower mass galaxy groups, where the processes capable of altering their evolution are generally weaker and have had less time to operate. To investigate the extent to which satellite and central galaxy evolution differs, we separately model the stellar mass-halo mass (M{sub *}-M{sub h} ) relation for these two populations over the redshift interval 0 < z < 1. This relation for central galaxies is constrained by the galaxy stellar mass function while themore » relation for satellite galaxies is constrained against recent measurements of the galaxy two-point correlation function (2PCF). Our approach does not rely on the abundance matching technique but instead adopts a flexible functional form for the relation between satellite galaxy stellar mass and subhalo mass, where subhalo mass is considered as the maximum mass that a subhalo has ever reached in its merger history, M{sub peak}. At z {approx} 0 the satellites, on average, have {approx}10% larger stellar masses at fixed M{sub peak} compared to central galaxies of the same halo mass (although the two relations are consistent at 2{sigma}-3{sigma} for M{sub peak} {approx}> 10{sup 13} M{sub Sun }). This is required in order to reproduce the observed stellar mass-dependent 2PCF and satellite fractions. At low masses our model slightly under-predicts the correlation function at {approx}1 Mpc scales. At z {approx} 1 the satellite and central galaxy M{sub *}-M{sub h} relations are consistent within the errors, and the model provides an excellent fit to the clustering data. At present, the errors on the clustering data at z {approx} 2 are too large to constrain the satellite model. A simple model in which satellite and central galaxies share the same M{sub *}-M{sub h} relation is able to reproduce the extant z {approx} 2 clustering data. We speculate that the striking similarity between the satellite and central galaxy M{sub *}-M{sub h} relations since z {approx} 2 arises because the central galaxy relation evolves very weakly with time and because the stellar mass of the typical satellite galaxy has not changed significantly since it was accreted. The reason for this last point is not yet entirely clear, but it is likely related to the fact that the typical {approx}L* satellite galaxy resides in a poor group where transformation processes are weak and lifetimes are short.« less
  • We examine the red fraction of central and satellite galaxies in the large zCOSMOS group catalog out to z {approx_equal} 0.8, correcting for both the incompleteness in stellar mass and for the less than perfect purities of the central and satellite samples. We show that at all masses and at all redshifts, the fraction of satellite galaxies that have been quenched, i.e., that are red, is systematically higher than that of centrals, as seen locally in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The satellite quenching efficiency, which is the probability that a satellite is quenched because it is a satellitemore » rather than a central, is, as locally, independent of stellar mass. Furthermore, the average value is about 0.5, which is also very similar to that seen in the SDSS. We also construct the mass functions of blue and red centrals and satellites and show that these broadly follow the predictions of the Peng et al. analysis of the SDSS groups. Together, these results indicate that the effect of the group environment in quenching satellite galaxies was very similar to what it is today when the universe was about half its present age.« less