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Title: On the radiolysis of ethylene ices by energetic electrons and implications to the extraterrestrial hydrocarbon chemistry

Abstract

The chemical processing of ethylene ices (C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) by energetic electrons was investigated at 11 K to simulate the energy transfer processes and synthesis of new molecules induced by secondary electrons generated in the track of galactic cosmic ray particles. A combination of Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (solid state) and quadrupole mass spectrometry (gas phase) resulted in the identification of six hydrocarbon molecules: methane (CH{sub 4}), the C2 species acetylene (C{sub 2}H{sub 2}), ethane (C{sub 2}H{sub 6}), the ethyl radical (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}), and—for the very first time in ethylene irradiation experiments—the C4 hydrocarbons 1-butene (C{sub 4}H{sub 8}) and n-butane (C{sub 4}H{sub 10}). By tracing the temporal evolution of the newly formed molecules spectroscopically online and in situ, we were also able to fit the kinetic profiles with a system of coupled differential equations, eventually providing mechanistic information, reaction pathways, and rate constants on the radiolysis of ethylene ices and the inherent formation of smaller (C1) and more complex (C2, C4) hydrocarbons involving carbon-hydrogen bond ruptures, atomic hydrogen addition processes, and radical-radical recombination pathways. We also discuss the implications of these results on the hydrocarbon chemistry on Titan's surface and on ice-coated, methane-bearing interstellar grains as present in coldmore » molecular clouds such as TMC-1.« less

Authors:
 [1]; ; ; ;  [2]
  1. Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China)
  2. Department of Chemistry, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22365592
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal; Journal Volume: 790; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; ABUNDANCE; ACETYLENE; BUTANE; CARBON COMPOUNDS; COSMIC RADIATION; COSMOLOGY; ETHANE; ETHYLENE; FOURIER TRANSFORMATION; GALAXIES; HYDROGEN COMPOUNDS; INTERSTELLAR GRAINS; MASS SPECTROSCOPY; METHANE; MOLECULES; RADIOLYSIS; SATELLITES

Citation Formats

Zhou, Li, Maity, Surajit, Abplanalp, Matt, Turner, Andrew, and Kaiser, Ralf I., E-mail: ralfk@hawaii.edu. On the radiolysis of ethylene ices by energetic electrons and implications to the extraterrestrial hydrocarbon chemistry. United States: N. p., 2014. Web. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/790/1/38.
Zhou, Li, Maity, Surajit, Abplanalp, Matt, Turner, Andrew, & Kaiser, Ralf I., E-mail: ralfk@hawaii.edu. On the radiolysis of ethylene ices by energetic electrons and implications to the extraterrestrial hydrocarbon chemistry. United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/790/1/38.
Zhou, Li, Maity, Surajit, Abplanalp, Matt, Turner, Andrew, and Kaiser, Ralf I., E-mail: ralfk@hawaii.edu. Sun . "On the radiolysis of ethylene ices by energetic electrons and implications to the extraterrestrial hydrocarbon chemistry". United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/790/1/38.
@article{osti_22365592,
title = {On the radiolysis of ethylene ices by energetic electrons and implications to the extraterrestrial hydrocarbon chemistry},
author = {Zhou, Li and Maity, Surajit and Abplanalp, Matt and Turner, Andrew and Kaiser, Ralf I., E-mail: ralfk@hawaii.edu},
abstractNote = {The chemical processing of ethylene ices (C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) by energetic electrons was investigated at 11 K to simulate the energy transfer processes and synthesis of new molecules induced by secondary electrons generated in the track of galactic cosmic ray particles. A combination of Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (solid state) and quadrupole mass spectrometry (gas phase) resulted in the identification of six hydrocarbon molecules: methane (CH{sub 4}), the C2 species acetylene (C{sub 2}H{sub 2}), ethane (C{sub 2}H{sub 6}), the ethyl radical (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}), and—for the very first time in ethylene irradiation experiments—the C4 hydrocarbons 1-butene (C{sub 4}H{sub 8}) and n-butane (C{sub 4}H{sub 10}). By tracing the temporal evolution of the newly formed molecules spectroscopically online and in situ, we were also able to fit the kinetic profiles with a system of coupled differential equations, eventually providing mechanistic information, reaction pathways, and rate constants on the radiolysis of ethylene ices and the inherent formation of smaller (C1) and more complex (C2, C4) hydrocarbons involving carbon-hydrogen bond ruptures, atomic hydrogen addition processes, and radical-radical recombination pathways. We also discuss the implications of these results on the hydrocarbon chemistry on Titan's surface and on ice-coated, methane-bearing interstellar grains as present in cold molecular clouds such as TMC-1.},
doi = {10.1088/0004-637X/790/1/38},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal},
number = 1,
volume = 790,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Jul 20 00:00:00 EDT 2014},
month = {Sun Jul 20 00:00:00 EDT 2014}
}