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Title: FORMATION OF CARBON-ENHANCED METAL-POOR STARS IN THE PRESENCE OF FAR-ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION

Abstract

Recent discoveries of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars like SMSS J031300.36–670839.3 provide increasing observational insights into the formation conditions of the first second-generation stars in the universe, reflecting the chemical conditions after the first supernova explosion. Here, we present the first cosmological simulations with a detailed chemical network including primordial species as well as C, C{sup +}, O, O{sup +}, Si, Si{sup +}, and Si{sup 2+} following the formation of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars. The presence of background UV flux delays the collapse from z = 21 to z = 15 and cool the gas down to the cosmic microwave background temperature for a metallicity of Z/Z {sub ☉} = 10{sup –3}. This can potentially lead to the formation of lower-mass stars. Overall, we find that the metals have a stronger effect on the collapse than the radiation, yielding a comparable thermal structure for large variations in the radiative background. We further find that radiative backgrounds are not able to delay the collapse for Z/Z {sub ☉} = 10{sup –2} or a carbon abundance as in SMSS J031300.36–670839.3.

Authors:
; ;  [1];  [2]
  1. Institut für Astrophysik Georg-August-Universität, Friedrich-Hund Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany)
  2. Centre for Star and Planet Formation, Natural History Museum of Denmark, Øster Voldgade 5-7, 1350 Copenhagen (Denmark)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22365434
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal Letters; Journal Volume: 790; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; CARBON; CARBON IONS; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION; COSMOLOGY; FAR ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION; HYDRODYNAMICS; METALLICITY; OXYGEN IONS; POTENTIALS; RELICT RADIATION; SILICON IONS; STARS; UNIVERSE

Citation Formats

Bovino, S., Schleicher, D. R. G., Latif, M. A., and Grassi, T., E-mail: sbovino@astro.physik.uni-goettingen.de. FORMATION OF CARBON-ENHANCED METAL-POOR STARS IN THE PRESENCE OF FAR-ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION. United States: N. p., 2014. Web. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/790/2/L35.
Bovino, S., Schleicher, D. R. G., Latif, M. A., & Grassi, T., E-mail: sbovino@astro.physik.uni-goettingen.de. FORMATION OF CARBON-ENHANCED METAL-POOR STARS IN THE PRESENCE OF FAR-ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION. United States. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/790/2/L35.
Bovino, S., Schleicher, D. R. G., Latif, M. A., and Grassi, T., E-mail: sbovino@astro.physik.uni-goettingen.de. Fri . "FORMATION OF CARBON-ENHANCED METAL-POOR STARS IN THE PRESENCE OF FAR-ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION". United States. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/790/2/L35.
@article{osti_22365434,
title = {FORMATION OF CARBON-ENHANCED METAL-POOR STARS IN THE PRESENCE OF FAR-ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION},
author = {Bovino, S. and Schleicher, D. R. G. and Latif, M. A. and Grassi, T., E-mail: sbovino@astro.physik.uni-goettingen.de},
abstractNote = {Recent discoveries of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars like SMSS J031300.36–670839.3 provide increasing observational insights into the formation conditions of the first second-generation stars in the universe, reflecting the chemical conditions after the first supernova explosion. Here, we present the first cosmological simulations with a detailed chemical network including primordial species as well as C, C{sup +}, O, O{sup +}, Si, Si{sup +}, and Si{sup 2+} following the formation of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars. The presence of background UV flux delays the collapse from z = 21 to z = 15 and cool the gas down to the cosmic microwave background temperature for a metallicity of Z/Z {sub ☉} = 10{sup –3}. This can potentially lead to the formation of lower-mass stars. Overall, we find that the metals have a stronger effect on the collapse than the radiation, yielding a comparable thermal structure for large variations in the radiative background. We further find that radiative backgrounds are not able to delay the collapse for Z/Z {sub ☉} = 10{sup –2} or a carbon abundance as in SMSS J031300.36–670839.3.},
doi = {10.1088/2041-8205/790/2/L35},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal Letters},
number = 2,
volume = 790,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Aug 01 00:00:00 EDT 2014},
month = {Fri Aug 01 00:00:00 EDT 2014}
}
  • We examine the metallicity distribution function (MDF) and fraction of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars in a sample that includes 86 stars with [Fe/H] {<=} -3.0, based on high-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectroscopy, of which some 32 objects lie below [Fe/H] = -3.5. After accounting for the completeness function, the 'corrected' MDF does not exhibit the sudden drop at [Fe/H] = -3.6 that was found in recent samples of dwarfs and giants from the Hamburg/ESO survey. Rather, the MDF decreases smoothly down to [Fe/H] = -4.1. Similar results are obtained from the 'raw' MDF. We find that the fraction of CEMP objectsmore » below [Fe/H] = -3.0 is 23% {+-} 6% and 32% {+-} 8% when adopting the Beers and Christlieb and Aoki et al. CEMP definitions, respectively. The former value is in fair agreement with some previous measurements, which adopt the Beers and Christlieb criterion.« less
  • We describe a method for the determination of stellar [C/Fe] abundance ratios using low-resolution (R = 2000) stellar spectra from the SDSS and SEGUE. By means of a star-by-star comparison with a set of SDSS/SEGUE spectra with available estimates of [C/Fe] based on published high-resolution analyses, we demonstrate that we can measure [C/Fe] from SDSS/SEGUE spectra with S/N > 15 to a precision better than 0.35 dex. Using the measured carbon-to-iron abundance ratios obtained by this technique, we derive the frequency of carbon-enhanced stars ([C/Fe] > +0.7) as a function of [Fe/H], for both the SDSS/SEGUE stars and other samplesmore » from the literature. We find that the differential frequency slowly rises from almost zero to about 14% at [Fe/H] ~ -2.4, followed by a sudden increase, by about a factor of three, to 39% from [Fe/H] ~ -2.4 to [Fe/H] ~ -3.7. We also examine how the cumulative frequency of CEMP stars varies across different luminosity classes. The giant sample exhibits a cumulative CEMP frequency of 32% for [Fe/H] < -2.5, 31% for [Fe/H] < -3.0, and 33% for [Fe/H] < -3.5. For the main-sequence turnoff stars, we obtain a lower cumulative CEMP frequency, around 10% for [Fe/H] < -2.5. The dwarf population displays a large change in the cumulative frequency for CEMP stars below [Fe/H] = -2.5, jumping from 15% for [Fe/H] < -2.5 to about 75% for [Fe/H] < -3.0. When we impose a restriction with respect to distance from the Galactic mid-plane (|Z| < 5 kpc), the frequency of the CEMP giants does not increase at low metallicity ([Fe/H] < -2.5), but rather, decreases, due to the dilution of C-rich material in stars that have undergone mixing with CNO-processed material from their interiors. The frequency of CEMP stars near the main-sequence turnoff, which are not expected to have experienced mixing, increases for [Fe/H] < -3.0. [abridged]« less
  • We describe a method for the determination of stellar [C/Fe] abundance ratios using low-resolution (R = 2000) stellar spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and its Galactic sub-survey, the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE). By means of a star-by-star comparison with a set of SDSS/SEGUE spectra with available estimates of [C/Fe] based on published high-resolution analyses, we demonstrate that we can measure [C/Fe] from SDSS/SEGUE spectra with S/N ≥ 15 Å{sup –1} to a precision better than 0.35 dex for stars with atmospheric parameters in the range T {sub eff} = [4400, 6700] K, logmore » g = [1.0, 5.0], [Fe/H] = [–4.0, +0.5], and [C/Fe] = [–0.25, +3.5]. Using the measured carbon-to-iron abundance ratios obtained by this technique, we derive the frequency of carbon-enhanced stars ([C/Fe] ≥ +0.7) as a function of [Fe/H], for both the SDSS/SEGUE stars and other samples from the literature. We find that the differential frequency slowly rises from almost zero to about 14% at [Fe/H] ∼ –2.4, followed by a sudden increase, by about a factor of three, to 39% from [Fe/H] ∼ –2.4 to [Fe/H] ∼ –3.7. Although the number of stars known with [Fe/H] < –4.0 remains small, the frequency of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars below this value is around 75%. We also examine how the cumulative frequency of CEMP stars varies across different luminosity classes. The giant sample exhibits a cumulative CEMP frequency of 32% for [Fe/H] ≤ –2.5, 31% for [Fe/H] ≤ –3.0, and 33% for [Fe/H] ≤ –3.5; a roughly constant value. For the main-sequence turnoff stars, we obtain a lower cumulative CEMP frequency, around 10% for [Fe/H] ≤ –2.5, presumably due to the difficulty of identifying CEMP stars among warmer turnoff stars with weak CH G-bands. The dwarf population displays a large change in the cumulative frequency for CEMP stars below [Fe/H] = –2.5, jumping from 15% for [Fe/H] ≤ –2.5 to about 75% for [Fe/H] ≤ –3.0. When we impose a restriction with respect to distance from the Galactic mid-plane (|Z| < 5 kpc), the frequency of the CEMP giants does not increase at low metallicity ([Fe/H] < –2.5), but rather decreases due to the dilution of C-rich material in stars that have undergone mixing with CNO-processed material from their interiors. The frequency of CEMP stars near the main-sequence turnoff, which are not expected to have experienced mixing, increases for [Fe/H] ≤ –3.0. The general rise in the global CEMP frequency at low metallicity is likely due to the transition from the inner-halo to the outer-halo stellar populations with declining metallicity and increasing distance from the plane.« less
  • We present models for the slow neutron-capture process (s-process) in asymptotic giant branch stars of metallicity [Fe/H] = -2.3 and masses 0.9-6 M{sub Sun }. We encountered different regimes of neutron-capture nucleosynthesis listed here increasing in importance as the stellar mass decreases: the {sup 22}Ne({alpha}, n){sup 25}Mg reaction activated during the thermal pulses (TPs), the {sup 13}C({alpha}, n){sup 16}O reaction activated in radiative conditions during the interpulse periods, and the {sup 13}C({alpha}, n){sup 16}O reaction activated during the TPs, also as a result of mild proton-ingestion episodes. The models where the {sup 13}C burns radiatively (masses {approx_equal}2 M{sub Sun })more » produce an overall good match to carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars showing s-process enhancements (CEMP-s), except they produce too much Na and F. On the other hand, none of our models can provide a match to the composition of CEMP stars also showing rapid-process enhancements (CEMP-s/r). The models fail to reproduce the observed Eu abundances, and they also fail to reproduce the correlation between the Eu and Ba abundances. They also cannot match the ratio of heavy-to-light s-process elements observed in many CEMP-s/r stars, which can be more than 10 times higher than in the solar system. To explain the composition of CEMP-s/r stars we need to invoke the existence of a different 's/r' neutron-capture process either with features in between the s- and the r-processes, or generated by superpositions of different neutron-capture processes in the same astrophysical site or in sites linked to each other-for example, in multiple stellar systems.« less
  • We perform a stellar evolution simulation of first stars and calculate stellar yields from the first supernovae. The initial masses are taken from 12 to 140 M {sub ☉} to cover the whole range of core-collapse supernova progenitors, and stellar rotation is included, which results in efficient internal mixing. A weak explosion is assumed in supernova yield calculations, thus only outer distributed matter, which is not affected by the explosive nucleosynthesis, is ejected in the models. We show that the initial mass and the rotation affect the explosion yield. All the weak explosion models have abundances of [C/O] larger thanmore » unity. Stellar yields from massive progenitors of >40-60 M {sub ☉} show enhancement of Mg and Si. Rotating models yield abundant Na and Al, and Ca is synthesized in nonrotating heavy massive models of >80 M {sub ☉}. We fit the stellar yields to the three most iron-deficient stars and constrain the initial parameters of the mother progenitor stars. The abundance pattern in SMSS 0313–6708 is well explained by 50-80 M {sub ☉} nonrotating models, rotating 30-40 M {sub ☉} models well fit the abundance of HE 0107-5240, and both nonrotating and rotating 15-40 M {sub ☉} models explain HE 1327-2326. The presented analysis will be applicable to other carbon-enhanced hyper-metal-poor stars observed in the future. The abundance analyses will give valuable information about the characteristics of the first stars.« less