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Title: THE KOZAI-LIDOV MECHANISM IN HYDRODYNAMICAL DISKS

Abstract

We use three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations to show that a highly misaligned accretion disk around one component of a binary system can exhibit global Kozai-Lidov cycles, where the inclination and eccentricity of the disk are interchanged periodically. This has important implications for accreting systems on all scales, for example, the formation of planets and satellites in circumstellar and circumplanetary disks, outbursts in X-ray binary systems, and accretion onto supermassive black holes.

Authors:
; ;  [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5]
  1. JILA, University of Colorado and NIST, UCB 440, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)
  2. Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)
  3. Monash Centre for Astrophysics (MoCA), School of Mathematical Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, Vic. 3800 (Australia)
  4. Department of Astronomy and Space Sciences, University of Ege, Bornova, 35100 İzmir (Turkey)
  5. Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22365084
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal Letters; Journal Volume: 792; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; ACCRETION DISKS; BINARY STARS; BLACK HOLES; COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION; HYDRODYNAMICS; INCLINATION; PERIODICITY; PLANETS; SATELLITES; THREE-DIMENSIONAL CALCULATIONS; X RADIATION

Citation Formats

Martin, Rebecca G., Nixon, Chris, Armitage, Philip J., Lubow, Stephen H., Price, Daniel J., Doğan, Suzan, and King, Andrew. THE KOZAI-LIDOV MECHANISM IN HYDRODYNAMICAL DISKS. United States: N. p., 2014. Web. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/792/2/L33.
Martin, Rebecca G., Nixon, Chris, Armitage, Philip J., Lubow, Stephen H., Price, Daniel J., Doğan, Suzan, & King, Andrew. THE KOZAI-LIDOV MECHANISM IN HYDRODYNAMICAL DISKS. United States. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/792/2/L33.
Martin, Rebecca G., Nixon, Chris, Armitage, Philip J., Lubow, Stephen H., Price, Daniel J., Doğan, Suzan, and King, Andrew. Wed . "THE KOZAI-LIDOV MECHANISM IN HYDRODYNAMICAL DISKS". United States. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/792/2/L33.
@article{osti_22365084,
title = {THE KOZAI-LIDOV MECHANISM IN HYDRODYNAMICAL DISKS},
author = {Martin, Rebecca G. and Nixon, Chris and Armitage, Philip J. and Lubow, Stephen H. and Price, Daniel J. and Doğan, Suzan and King, Andrew},
abstractNote = {We use three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations to show that a highly misaligned accretion disk around one component of a binary system can exhibit global Kozai-Lidov cycles, where the inclination and eccentricity of the disk are interchanged periodically. This has important implications for accreting systems on all scales, for example, the formation of planets and satellites in circumstellar and circumplanetary disks, outbursts in X-ray binary systems, and accretion onto supermassive black holes.},
doi = {10.1088/2041-8205/792/2/L33},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal Letters},
number = 2,
volume = 792,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Sep 10 00:00:00 EDT 2014},
month = {Wed Sep 10 00:00:00 EDT 2014}
}
  • Previously we showed that a substantially misaligned viscous accretion disk with pressure that orbits around one component of a binary system can undergo global damped Kozai–Lidov (KL) oscillations. These oscillations produce periodic exchanges of the disk eccentricity with inclination. The disk KL mechanism is quite robust and operates over a wide range of binary and disk parameters. However, the effects of self-gravity, which are expected to suppress the KL oscillations for sufficiently massive disks, were ignored. Here, we analyze the effects of disk self-gravity by means of hydrodynamic simulations and compare the results with the expectations of analytic theory. Themore » disk mass required for suppression in the simulations is a few percent of the mass of the central star and this roughly agrees with an analytical estimate. The conditions for suppression of the KL oscillations in the simulations are close to requiring that the disk be gravitationally unstable. We discuss some implications of our results for the dynamics of protoplanetary disks and the related planet formation.« less
  • Martin et al. showed that a substantially misaligned accretion disk around one component of a binary system can undergo global damped Kozai–Lidov (KL) oscillations. During these oscillations, the inclination and eccentricity of the disk are periodically exchanged. However, the robustness of this mechanism and its dependence on the system parameters were unexplored. In this paper, we use three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations to analyze how various binary and disk parameters affect the KL mechanism in hydrodynamical disks. The simulations include the effect of gas pressure and viscosity, but ignore the effects of disk self-gravity. We describe results for different numerical resolutions, binarymore » mass ratios and orbital eccentricities, initial disk sizes, initial disk surface density profiles, disk sound speeds, and disk viscosities. We show that the KL mechanism can operate for a wide range of binary-disk parameters. We discuss the applications of our results to astrophysical disks in various accreting systems.« less
  • Martin et al. (2014b) showed that a substantially misaligned accretion disk around one component of a binary system can undergo global damped Kozai–Lidov (KL) oscillations. During these oscillations, the inclination and eccentricity of the disk are periodically exchanged. However, the robustness of this mechanism and its dependence on the system parameters were unexplored. In this paper, we use three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations to analyze how various binary and disk parameters affect the KL mechanism in hydrodynamical disks. The simulations include the effect of gas pressure and viscosity, but ignore the effects of disk self-gravity. We describe results for different numerical resolutions,more » binary mass ratios and orbital eccentricities, initial disk sizes, initial disk surface density profiles, disk sound speeds, and disk viscosities. We show that the KL mechanism can operate for a wide range of binary-disk parameters. We discuss the applications of our results to astrophysical disks in various accreting systems.« less
  • We study the steady-state orbital distributions of giant planets migrating through the combination of the Kozai-Lidov (KL) mechanism due to a stellar companion and friction due to tides raised on the planet by the host star. We run a large set of Monte Carlo simulations that describe the secular evolution of a star-planet-star triple system including the effects from general relativistic precession, stellar and planetary spin evolution, and tides. Our simulations show that KL migration produces Hot Jupiters (HJs) with semi-major axes that are generally smaller than in the observations and they can only explain the observations if the followingmore » are both true: (1) tidal dissipation at high eccentricities is at least ∼150 times more efficient than the upper limit inferred from the Jupiter-Io interaction; (2) highly eccentric planets get tidally disrupted at distances ≳ 0.015 AU. Based on the occurrence rate and semi-major axis distribution of HJs, we find that KL migration in stellar binaries can produce at most ∼20% of the observed HJs. Almost no intermediate-period (semi-major axis ∼0.1 -2 AU) planets are formed by this mechanism—migrating planets spend most of their lifetimes undergoing KL oscillations at large orbital separations (>2 AU) or as HJs.« less
  • The Kozai-Lidov mechanism can be applied to a vast variety of astrophysical systems involving hierarchical three-body systems. Here, we study the Kozai-Lidov mechanism systematically in the test particle limit at the octupole level of approximation. We investigate the chaotic and quasi-periodic orbital evolution by studying the surfaces of section and the Lyapunov exponents. We find that the resonances introduced by the octupole level of approximation cause orbits to flip from prograde to retrograde and back as well as cause significant eccentricity excitation, and chaotic behavior occurs when the mutual inclination between the inner and the outer binary is high. Wemore » characterize the parameter space that allows large amplitude oscillations in eccentricity and inclination.« less