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Title: THE BROAD-LINED Type Ic SN 2012ap AND THE NATURE OF RELATIVISTIC SUPERNOVAE LACKING A GAMMA-RAY BURST DETECTION

Abstract

We present ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared observations of SN 2012ap, a broad-lined Type Ic supernova in the galaxy NGC 1729 that produced a relativistic and rapidly decelerating outflow without a gamma-ray burst signature. Photometry and spectroscopy follow the flux evolution from –13 to +272 days past the B-band maximum of –17.4 ± 0.5 mag. The spectra are dominated by Fe II, O I, and Ca II absorption lines at ejecta velocities of v ≈ 20,000 km s{sup –1} that change slowly over time. Other spectral absorption lines are consistent with contributions from photospheric He I, and hydrogen may also be present at higher velocities (v ≳ 27,000 km s{sup –1}). We use these observations to estimate explosion properties and derive a total ejecta mass of ∼2.7 M {sub ☉}, a kinetic energy of ∼1.0 × 10{sup 52} erg, and a {sup 56}Ni mass of 0.1-0.2 M {sub ☉}. Nebular spectra (t > 200 days) exhibit an asymmetric double-peaked [O I] λλ6300, 6364 emission profile that we associate with absorption in the supernova interior, although toroidal ejecta geometry is an alternative explanation. SN 2012ap joins SN 2009bb as another exceptional supernova that shows evidence for a central engine (e.g., black holemore » accretion or magnetar) capable of launching a non-negligible portion of ejecta to relativistic velocities without a coincident gamma-ray burst detection. Defining attributes of their progenitor systems may be related to notable observed properties including environmental metallicities of Z ≳ Z {sub ☉}, moderate to high levels of host galaxy extinction (E(B – V) > 0.4 mag), detection of high-velocity helium at early epochs, and a high relative flux ratio of [Ca II]/[O I] >1 at nebular epochs. These events support the notion that jet activity at various energy scales may be present in a wide range of supernovae.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;  [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [8];  [9];  [10];  [11];  [12] more »; « less
  1. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)
  2. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)
  3. Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom)
  4. Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)
  5. Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)
  6. University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States)
  7. Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States)
  8. Southern African Large Telescope, P.O. Box 9, Observatory 7935, Cape Town (South Africa)
  9. Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan)
  10. Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)
  11. Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, Colina El Pino, Casilla 601 (Chile)
  12. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22364468
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal; Journal Volume: 799; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; ABSORPTION; BLACK HOLES; COSMIC GAMMA BURSTS; DETECTION; GALAXIES; HELIUM; HYDROGEN; JETS; KINETIC ENERGY; MASS; METALLICITY; NICKEL 56; PHOTOMETRY; RELATIVISTIC RANGE; STAR EVOLUTION; SUPERNOVAE; ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION; VELOCITY

Citation Formats

Milisavljevic, D., Margutti, R., Parrent, J. T., Soderberg, A. M., Sanders, N. E., Kamble, A., Chakraborti, S., Drout, M. R., Kirshner, R. P., Fesen, R. A., Mazzali, P., Maeda, K., Cenko, S. B., Silverman, J. M., Filippenko, A. V., Pickering, T. E., Kawabata, K., Hattori, T., Hsiao, E. Y., Stritzinger, M. D., E-mail: dmilisav@cfa.harvard.edu, and and others. THE BROAD-LINED Type Ic SN 2012ap AND THE NATURE OF RELATIVISTIC SUPERNOVAE LACKING A GAMMA-RAY BURST DETECTION. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/799/1/51.
Milisavljevic, D., Margutti, R., Parrent, J. T., Soderberg, A. M., Sanders, N. E., Kamble, A., Chakraborti, S., Drout, M. R., Kirshner, R. P., Fesen, R. A., Mazzali, P., Maeda, K., Cenko, S. B., Silverman, J. M., Filippenko, A. V., Pickering, T. E., Kawabata, K., Hattori, T., Hsiao, E. Y., Stritzinger, M. D., E-mail: dmilisav@cfa.harvard.edu, & and others. THE BROAD-LINED Type Ic SN 2012ap AND THE NATURE OF RELATIVISTIC SUPERNOVAE LACKING A GAMMA-RAY BURST DETECTION. United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/799/1/51.
Milisavljevic, D., Margutti, R., Parrent, J. T., Soderberg, A. M., Sanders, N. E., Kamble, A., Chakraborti, S., Drout, M. R., Kirshner, R. P., Fesen, R. A., Mazzali, P., Maeda, K., Cenko, S. B., Silverman, J. M., Filippenko, A. V., Pickering, T. E., Kawabata, K., Hattori, T., Hsiao, E. Y., Stritzinger, M. D., E-mail: dmilisav@cfa.harvard.edu, and and others. Tue . "THE BROAD-LINED Type Ic SN 2012ap AND THE NATURE OF RELATIVISTIC SUPERNOVAE LACKING A GAMMA-RAY BURST DETECTION". United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/799/1/51.
@article{osti_22364468,
title = {THE BROAD-LINED Type Ic SN 2012ap AND THE NATURE OF RELATIVISTIC SUPERNOVAE LACKING A GAMMA-RAY BURST DETECTION},
author = {Milisavljevic, D. and Margutti, R. and Parrent, J. T. and Soderberg, A. M. and Sanders, N. E. and Kamble, A. and Chakraborti, S. and Drout, M. R. and Kirshner, R. P. and Fesen, R. A. and Mazzali, P. and Maeda, K. and Cenko, S. B. and Silverman, J. M. and Filippenko, A. V. and Pickering, T. E. and Kawabata, K. and Hattori, T. and Hsiao, E. Y. and Stritzinger, M. D., E-mail: dmilisav@cfa.harvard.edu and and others},
abstractNote = {We present ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared observations of SN 2012ap, a broad-lined Type Ic supernova in the galaxy NGC 1729 that produced a relativistic and rapidly decelerating outflow without a gamma-ray burst signature. Photometry and spectroscopy follow the flux evolution from –13 to +272 days past the B-band maximum of –17.4 ± 0.5 mag. The spectra are dominated by Fe II, O I, and Ca II absorption lines at ejecta velocities of v ≈ 20,000 km s{sup –1} that change slowly over time. Other spectral absorption lines are consistent with contributions from photospheric He I, and hydrogen may also be present at higher velocities (v ≳ 27,000 km s{sup –1}). We use these observations to estimate explosion properties and derive a total ejecta mass of ∼2.7 M {sub ☉}, a kinetic energy of ∼1.0 × 10{sup 52} erg, and a {sup 56}Ni mass of 0.1-0.2 M {sub ☉}. Nebular spectra (t > 200 days) exhibit an asymmetric double-peaked [O I] λλ6300, 6364 emission profile that we associate with absorption in the supernova interior, although toroidal ejecta geometry is an alternative explanation. SN 2012ap joins SN 2009bb as another exceptional supernova that shows evidence for a central engine (e.g., black hole accretion or magnetar) capable of launching a non-negligible portion of ejecta to relativistic velocities without a coincident gamma-ray burst detection. Defining attributes of their progenitor systems may be related to notable observed properties including environmental metallicities of Z ≳ Z {sub ☉}, moderate to high levels of host galaxy extinction (E(B – V) > 0.4 mag), detection of high-velocity helium at early epochs, and a high relative flux ratio of [Ca II]/[O I] >1 at nebular epochs. These events support the notion that jet activity at various energy scales may be present in a wide range of supernovae.},
doi = {10.1088/0004-637X/799/1/51},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal},
number = 1,
volume = 799,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Jan 20 00:00:00 EST 2015},
month = {Tue Jan 20 00:00:00 EST 2015}
}
  • We present the first systematic investigation of spectral properties of 17 Type Ic Supernovae (SNe Ic), 10 broad-lined SNe Ic (SNe Ic-bl) without observed gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), and 11 SNe Ic-bl with GRBs (SN-GRBs) as a function of time in order to probe their explosion conditions and progenitors. Using a number of novel methods, we analyze a total of 407 spectra, which were drawn from published spectra of individual SNe as well as from the densely time-sampled spectra of Modjaz et al (2014). In order to quantify the diversity of the SN spectra as a function of SN subtype, wemore » construct average spectra of SNe Ic, SNe Ic-bl without GRBs, and SNe Ic-bl with GRBs. We find that SN 1994I is not a typical SN Ic, contrasting the general view, while the spectra of SN 1998bw/GRB 980425 are representative of mean spectra of SNe Ic-bl. We measure the ejecta absorption and width velocities using a new method described here and find that SNe Ic-bl with GRBs, on average, have quantifiably higher absorption velocities, as well as broader line widths than SNe without observed GRBs. In addition, we search for correlations between SN-GRB spectral properties and the energies of their accompanying GRBs. Finally, we show that the absence of clear He lines in optical spectra of SNe Ic-bl, and in particular of SN-GRBs, is not due to them being too smeared-out due to the high velocities present in the ejecta. This implies that the progenitor stars of SN-GRBs are probably free of the He-layer, in addition to being H-free, which puts strong constraints on the stellar evolutionary paths needed to produce such SN-GRB progenitors at the observed low metallicities.« less
  • Photometric and spectral evolution of the Type Ic supernova SN 2007ru until around 210 days after maximum are presented. The spectra show broad spectral features due to very high expansion velocity, normally seen in hypernovae. The photospheric velocity is higher than other normal Type Ic supernovae (SNe Ic). It is lower than SN 1998bw at {approx}8 days after the explosion, but is comparable at later epochs. The light curve (LC) evolution of SN 2007ru indicates a fast rise time of 8 {+-} 3 days to B-band maximum and postmaximum decline more rapid than other broad-line SNe Ic. With an absolutemore » V magnitude of -19.06, SN 2007ru is comparable in brightness with SN 1998bw and lies at the brighter end of the observed SNe Ic. The ejected mass of {sup 56}Ni is estimated to be {approx}0.4 M {sub sun}. The fast rise and decline of the LC and the high expansion velocity suggest that SN 2007ru is an explosion with a high kinetic energy/ejecta mass ratio (E {sub K}/M {sub ej}). This adds to the diversity of SNe Ic. Although the early phase spectra are most similar to those of broad-line SN 2003jd, the [O I] line profile in the nebular spectrum of SN 2007ru shows the singly peaked profile, in contrast to the doubly peaked profile in SN 2003jd. The singly peaked profile, together with the high luminosity and the high expansion velocity, may suggest that SN 2007ru could be an aspherical explosion viewed from the polar direction. Estimated oxygen abundance 12 + log(O/H) of {approx}8.8 indicates that SN 2007ru occurred in a region with nearly solar metallicity.« less
  • We report on our serendipitous pre-discovery detection and follow-up observations of the broad-lined Type Ic supernova (SN Ic) 2010ay at z = 0.067 imaged by the Pan-STARRS1 3{pi} survey just {approx}4 days after explosion. The supernova (SN) had a peak luminosity, M{sub R} Almost-Equal-To -20.2 mag, significantly more luminous than known GRB-SNe and one of the most luminous SNe Ib/c ever discovered. The absorption velocity of SN 2010ay is v{sub Si} Almost-Equal-To 19 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} km s{sup -1} at {approx}40 days after explosion, 2-5 times higher than other broad-lined SNe and similar to the GRB-SN 2010bh at comparable epochs.more » Moreover, the velocity declines {approx}2 times slower than other SNe Ic-BL and GRB-SNe. Assuming that the optical emission is powered by radioactive decay, the peak magnitude implies the synthesis of an unusually large mass of {sup 56}Ni, M{sub Ni} = 0.9 M{sub Sun }. Applying scaling relations to the light curve, we estimate a total ejecta mass, M{sub ej} Almost-Equal-To 4.7 M{sub Sun }, and total kinetic energy, E{sub K} Almost-Equal-To 11 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 51} erg. The ratio of M{sub Ni} to M{sub ej} is {approx}2 times as large for SN 2010ay as typical GRB-SNe and may suggest an additional energy reservoir. The metallicity (log (O/H){sub PP04} + 12 = 8.19) of the explosion site within the host galaxy places SN 2010ay in the low-metallicity regime populated by GRB-SNe, and {approx}0.5(0.2) dex lower than that typically measured for the host environments of normal (broad-lined) SNe Ic. We constrain any gamma-ray emission with E{sub {gamma}} {approx}< 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 48} erg (25-150 keV), and our deep radio follow-up observations with the Expanded Very Large Array rule out relativistic ejecta with energy E {approx}> 10{sup 48} erg. We therefore rule out the association of a relativistic outflow like those that accompanied SN 1998bw and traditional long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), but we place less-stringent constraints on a weak afterglow like that seen from XRF 060218. If this SN did not harbor a GRB, these observations challenge the importance of progenitor metallicity for the production of relativistic ejecta and suggest that other parameters also play a key role.« less
  • Long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) at z < 1 are found in most cases to be accompanied by bright, broad-lined Type Ic supernovae (SNe Ic-BL). The highest-energy GRBs are mostly located at higher redshifts, where the associated SNe are hard to detect observationally. Here, we present early and late observations of the optical counterpart of the very energetic GRB 130427A. Despite its moderate redshift, z = 0.3399 ± 0.0002, GRB 130427A is at the high end of the GRB energy distribution, with an isotropic-equivalent energy release of E{sub iso} ∼ 9.6 × 10{sup 53} erg, more than an order of magnitudemore » more energetic than other GRBs with spectroscopically confirmed SNe. In our dense photometric monitoring, we detect excess flux in the host-subtracted r-band light curve, consistent with that expected from an emerging SN, ∼0.2 mag fainter than the prototypical SN 1998bw. A spectrum obtained around the time of the SN peak (16.7 days after the GRB) reveals broad undulations typical of SNe Ic-BL, confirming the presence of an SN, designated SN 2013cq. The spectral shape and early peak time are similar to those of the high expansion velocity SN 2010bh associated with GRB 100316D. Our findings demonstrate that high-energy, long-duration GRBs, commonly detected at high redshift, can also be associated with SNe Ic-BL, pointing to a common progenitor mechanism.« less
  • We present ground-based and Hubble Space Telescope optical and infrared observations of Swift XRF 100316D/SN 2010bh. It is seen that the optical light curves of SN 2010bh evolve at a faster rate than the archetype gamma-ray burst supernova (GRB-SN) 1998bw, but at a similar rate to SN 2006aj, an SN that was spectroscopically linked with XRF 060218, and at a similar rate to the non-GRB associated Type Ic SN 1994I. We estimate the rest-frame extinction of this event from our optical data to be E(B - V) = 0.18 {+-} 0.08 mag. We find the V-band absolute magnitude of SNmore » 2010bh to be M{sub V} = -18.62 {+-} 0.08, which is the faintest peak V-band magnitude observed to date for spectroscopically confirmed GRB-SNe. When we investigate the origin of the flux at t - t{sub 0} = 0.598 days, it is shown that the light is not synchrotron in origin, but is likely coming from the SN shock breakout. We then use our optical and infrared data to create a quasi-bolometric light curve of SN 2010bh, which we model with a simple analytical formula. The results of our modeling imply that SN 2010bh synthesized a nickel mass of M{sub Ni} {approx} 0.1 M{sub sun}, ejected M{sub ej} {approx} 2.2 M{sub sun}, and has an explosion energy of E{sub k} {approx} 1.4 x 10{sup 52} erg. Thus, while SN 2010bh is an energetic explosion, the amount of nickel created during the explosion is much less than that of SN 1998bw and only marginally more than SN 1994I. Finally, for a sample of 22 GRB-SNe we check for a correlation between the stretch factors and luminosity factors in the R band and conclude that no statistically significant correlation exists.« less