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Title: Expression, purification and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of the human immunodeficiency virus 1 subtype C protease

Abstract

Crystals of the human immunodeficiency virus 1 subtype C protease complexed with indinavir and nelfinavir have been grown in the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1} and shown to diffract X-rays to 2.3 Å resolution. Crystals of the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) subtype C protease (PR) complexed with the clinically used inhibitors indinavir (IDV) and nelfinavir (NFV) have been grown in the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}, with mean unit-cell parameters a = 46.7 (±0.1), b = 59.8 (±0.3), c = 87.0 (±0.4) Å, β = 95.2 (±0.5)°. The crystals of both complexes have been shown to diffract X-rays to 2.3 Å resolution. The diffraction data for the subtype C PR complexes with IDV and NFV were subsequently processed and reduced, with overall R{sub sym} values of 8.4 and 11.4%, respectively. Based on the unit-cell volumes, molecular-replacement results and packing considerations, there are two protease homodimers per crystallographic asymmetric unit in each of the complexes. The data were initially phased using a model based on the crystal structure of HIV-1 subtype B PR; the structures have been determined and further refinement and analysis are in progress. These structures and subsequent studies with other inhibitors will greatly aid in correlating themore » amino-acid variation between the different HIV PRs and understanding their differential sensitivity and resistance to current drug therapy.« less

Authors:
;  [1];  [2]; ;  [1]
  1. Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States)
  2. Department of Pathology, Immunology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22360313
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Acta Crystallographica. Section F; Journal Volume: 63; Journal Issue: Pt 4; Other Information: PMCID: PMC2330223; PMID: 17401206; PUBLISHER-ID: pu5176; OAI: oai:pubmedcentral.nih.gov:2330223; Copyright (c) International Union of Crystallography 2007; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United Kingdom
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; CRYSTAL STRUCTURE; CRYSTALS; CURRENTS; DIFFRACTION; RESOLUTION; SENSITIVITY; SPACE GROUPS; STOWING; VARIATIONS

Citation Formats

Coman, Roxana M., Robbins, Arthur, Goodenow, Maureen M., McKenna, Robert, and Dunn, Ben M., E-mail: bdunn@ufl.edu. Expression, purification and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of the human immunodeficiency virus 1 subtype C protease. United Kingdom: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1107/S174430910701161X.
Coman, Roxana M., Robbins, Arthur, Goodenow, Maureen M., McKenna, Robert, & Dunn, Ben M., E-mail: bdunn@ufl.edu. Expression, purification and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of the human immunodeficiency virus 1 subtype C protease. United Kingdom. doi:10.1107/S174430910701161X.
Coman, Roxana M., Robbins, Arthur, Goodenow, Maureen M., McKenna, Robert, and Dunn, Ben M., E-mail: bdunn@ufl.edu. Sun . "Expression, purification and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of the human immunodeficiency virus 1 subtype C protease". United Kingdom. doi:10.1107/S174430910701161X.
@article{osti_22360313,
title = {Expression, purification and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of the human immunodeficiency virus 1 subtype C protease},
author = {Coman, Roxana M. and Robbins, Arthur and Goodenow, Maureen M. and McKenna, Robert and Dunn, Ben M., E-mail: bdunn@ufl.edu},
abstractNote = {Crystals of the human immunodeficiency virus 1 subtype C protease complexed with indinavir and nelfinavir have been grown in the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1} and shown to diffract X-rays to 2.3 Å resolution. Crystals of the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) subtype C protease (PR) complexed with the clinically used inhibitors indinavir (IDV) and nelfinavir (NFV) have been grown in the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}, with mean unit-cell parameters a = 46.7 (±0.1), b = 59.8 (±0.3), c = 87.0 (±0.4) Å, β = 95.2 (±0.5)°. The crystals of both complexes have been shown to diffract X-rays to 2.3 Å resolution. The diffraction data for the subtype C PR complexes with IDV and NFV were subsequently processed and reduced, with overall R{sub sym} values of 8.4 and 11.4%, respectively. Based on the unit-cell volumes, molecular-replacement results and packing considerations, there are two protease homodimers per crystallographic asymmetric unit in each of the complexes. The data were initially phased using a model based on the crystal structure of HIV-1 subtype B PR; the structures have been determined and further refinement and analysis are in progress. These structures and subsequent studies with other inhibitors will greatly aid in correlating the amino-acid variation between the different HIV PRs and understanding their differential sensitivity and resistance to current drug therapy.},
doi = {10.1107/S174430910701161X},
journal = {Acta Crystallographica. Section F},
number = Pt 4,
volume = 63,
place = {United Kingdom},
year = {Sun Apr 01 00:00:00 EDT 2007},
month = {Sun Apr 01 00:00:00 EDT 2007}
}
  • The structure of a crystal complex of the chemically synthesized protease of human immunodeficiency virus 1 with a heptapeptide-derived inhibitor bound in the active site has been determined. The sequence of the inhibitor JG-365 is Ac-Ser-Leu-Asn-Phe-{psi} (CH(OH)CH{sub 2}N)-Pro-Ile-Val-OMe; the K{sub i} is 0.24 nM. The hydroxyethylamine moiety, in place of the normal scissile bond of the substrate, is believed to mimic a tetrahedral reaction intermediate. The structure of the complex has been refined to an R factor of 0.146 at 2.4-{angstrom} resolution by using restrained least squares with rms deviations in bond lengths of 0.02 {angstrom} and bond angles ofmore » 4{degree}. The bound inhibitor diastereomer has the S configuration at the hydroxyethylamine chiral carbon, and the hydroxyl group is positioned between the active site aspartate carboxyl groups within hydrogen bonding distance. Comparison of this structure with a reduced peptide bond inhibitor-protease complex indicates that these contacts confer the exceptional binding strength of JG-365.« less
  • The structure-based design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of a series of nonpeptidic macrocyclic HIV protease inhibitors are described. The inhibitors are designed to effectively fill in the hydrophobic pocket in the S1'-S2' subsites and retain all major hydrogen bonding interactions with the protein backbone similar to darunavir (1) or inhibitor 2. The ring size, the effect of methyl substitution, and unsaturation within the macrocyclic ring structure were assessed. In general, cyclic inhibitors were significantly more potent than their acyclic homologues, saturated rings were less active than their unsaturated analogues and a preference for 10- and 13-membered macrocylic rings was revealed.more » The addition of methyl substituents resulted in a reduction of potency. Both inhibitors 14b and 14c exhibited marked enzyme inhibitory and antiviral activity, and they exerted potent activity against multidrug-resistant HIV-1 variants. Protein-ligand X-ray structures of inhibitors 2 and 14c provided critical molecular insights into the ligand-binding site interactions.« less
  • Crystals of baculovirus-expressed adeno-associated virus serotype 1 (AAV1) capsids have been grown in the rhombohedral space group R32 (unit-cell parameters a = 254.7 Å, α = 62.3°) and shown to diffract X-rays to at least 2.5 Å resolution. Crystals of baculovirus-expressed adeno-associated virus serotype 1 (AAV1) capsids have been grown in the rhombohedral space group R32 (unit-cell parameters a = 254.7 Å, α = 62.3°) and shown to diffract X-rays to at least 2.5 Å resolution. The diffraction data were subsequently processed and reduced with an overall R{sub sym} of 12.3% and a completeness of 89.0%. Based on the unit-cellmore » volume, rotation-function and translation-function results and packing considerations, there is one virus capsid (60 viral proteins) per unit cell and there are ten viral proteins per crystallographic asymmetric unit. The AAV1 capsid shares both the twofold and threefold crystallographic symmetry operators. The AAV1 data have been initially phased using a polyalanine model (based on the crystal structure of AAV4) to 4.0 Å resolution and the structure determination and refinement is in progress using tenfold noncrystallographic symmetry electron-density averaging.« less
  • A predicted protein module BIV2-Helix of BIVgp40 has been expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by chromatography. Recombinant BIV2-Helix was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique at 291 K.
  • The crystallization of HLA-B*1402 in complex with two peptides is reported. The product of the human major histocompatibility (HLA) class I allele HLA-B*1402 only differs from that of allele HLA-B*1403 at amino-acid position 156 of the heavy chain (Leu in HLA-B*1402 and Arg in HLA-B*1403). However, both subtypes are known to be differentially associated with the inflammatory rheumatic disease ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in black populations in Cameroon and Togo. HLA-B*1402 is not associated with AS, in contrast to HLA-B*1403, which is associated with this disease in the Togolese population. The products of these alleles can present peptides with Arg atmore » position 2, a feature shared by a small group of other HLA-B antigens, including HLA-B*2705, the prototypical AS-associated subtype. Complexes of HLA-B*1402 with a viral peptide (RRRWRRLTV, termed pLMP2) and a self-peptide (IRAAPPPLF, termed pCatA) were prepared and were crystallized using polyethylene glycol as precipitant. The complexes crystallized in space groups P2{sub 1} (pLMP2) and P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} (pCatA) and diffracted synchrotron radiation to 2.55 and 1.86 Å resolution, respectively. Unambiguous solutions for both data sets were obtained by molecular replacement using a peptide-complexed HLA-B*2705 molecule (PDB code) as a search model.« less