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Title: Hubble space telescope absolute proper motions of NGC 6681 (M70) and the sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy

Abstract

We have measured absolute proper motions for the three populations intercepted in the direction of the Galactic globular cluster NGC 6681: the cluster itself, the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy, and the field. For this, we used Hubble Space Telescope ACS/WFC and WFC3/UVIS optical imaging data separated by a temporal baseline of 5.464 yr. Five background galaxies were used to determine the zero point of the absolute-motion reference frame. The resulting absolute proper motion of NGC 6681 is (μ{sub α}cos δ, μ{sub δ}) = (1.58 ± 0.18, –4.57 ± 0.16) mas yr{sup –1}. This is the first estimate ever made for this cluster. For the Sgr dSph we obtain (μ{sub α}cos δ, μ{sub δ}) = –2.54 ± 0.18, –1.19 ± 0.16) mas yr{sup –1}, consistent with previous measurements and with the values predicted by theoretical models. The absolute proper motion of the Galaxy population in our field of view is (μ{sub α}cos δ, μ{sub δ}) = (– 1.21 ± 0.27, –4.39 ± 0.26) mas yr{sup –1}. In this study we also use background Sagittarius Dwarf Spheroidal stars to determine the rotation of the globular cluster in the plane of the sky and find that NGC 6681 is not rotating significantly: vmore » {sub rot} = 0.82 ± 1.02 km s{sup –1} at a distance of 1' from the cluster center.« less

Authors:
; ; ;  [1]; ; ;  [2]
  1. Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Bologna, v.le Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy)
  2. Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22348501
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal; Journal Volume: 779; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; DISTANCE; DWARF STARS; GALAXIES; PROPER MOTION; ROTATION; SPACE; STARS; TELESCOPES

Citation Formats

Massari, D., Ferraro, F. R., Dalessandro, E., Lanzoni, B., Bellini, A., Van der Marel, R. P., and Anderson, J.. Hubble space telescope absolute proper motions of NGC 6681 (M70) and the sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy. United States: N. p., 2013. Web. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/779/1/81.
Massari, D., Ferraro, F. R., Dalessandro, E., Lanzoni, B., Bellini, A., Van der Marel, R. P., & Anderson, J.. Hubble space telescope absolute proper motions of NGC 6681 (M70) and the sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy. United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/779/1/81.
Massari, D., Ferraro, F. R., Dalessandro, E., Lanzoni, B., Bellini, A., Van der Marel, R. P., and Anderson, J.. Tue . "Hubble space telescope absolute proper motions of NGC 6681 (M70) and the sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy". United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/779/1/81.
@article{osti_22348501,
title = {Hubble space telescope absolute proper motions of NGC 6681 (M70) and the sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy},
author = {Massari, D. and Ferraro, F. R. and Dalessandro, E. and Lanzoni, B. and Bellini, A. and Van der Marel, R. P. and Anderson, J.},
abstractNote = {We have measured absolute proper motions for the three populations intercepted in the direction of the Galactic globular cluster NGC 6681: the cluster itself, the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy, and the field. For this, we used Hubble Space Telescope ACS/WFC and WFC3/UVIS optical imaging data separated by a temporal baseline of 5.464 yr. Five background galaxies were used to determine the zero point of the absolute-motion reference frame. The resulting absolute proper motion of NGC 6681 is (μ{sub α}cos δ, μ{sub δ}) = (1.58 ± 0.18, –4.57 ± 0.16) mas yr{sup –1}. This is the first estimate ever made for this cluster. For the Sgr dSph we obtain (μ{sub α}cos δ, μ{sub δ}) = –2.54 ± 0.18, –1.19 ± 0.16) mas yr{sup –1}, consistent with previous measurements and with the values predicted by theoretical models. The absolute proper motion of the Galaxy population in our field of view is (μ{sub α}cos δ, μ{sub δ}) = (– 1.21 ± 0.27, –4.39 ± 0.26) mas yr{sup –1}. In this study we also use background Sagittarius Dwarf Spheroidal stars to determine the rotation of the globular cluster in the plane of the sky and find that NGC 6681 is not rotating significantly: v {sub rot} = 0.82 ± 1.02 km s{sup –1} at a distance of 1' from the cluster center.},
doi = {10.1088/0004-637X/779/1/81},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal},
number = 1,
volume = 779,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Dec 10 00:00:00 EST 2013},
month = {Tue Dec 10 00:00:00 EST 2013}
}
  • We have derived a proper motion of Sagittarius using archival data obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope. The data consist of imaging at three epochs with a time baseline of about four years in three distinct fields. The zero point for the proper motion is based on the foreground Galactic stellar populations along the line of sight. The measured proper motion in the Galactic coordinate system is ({mu}{sub l}, {mu} {sub b}) = (-2.615 {+-} 0.22, 1.87 {+-} 0.19) mas yr{sup -1} and in the equatorial coordinate system is ({mu}{sub {alpha}}, {mu}{sub {delta}}) = (-2.75 {+-} 0.20, - 1.65 {+-}more » 0.22) mas yr{sup -1}. Removing the contribution of the motion of the Sun and of the LSR to the measured proper motion produces a Galactic rest-frame proper motion of ({mu}{sup Grf} {sub l}, {mu}{sup Grf} {sub b}) = (-0.82 {+-} 0.22, 1.98 {+-} 0.19) mas yr{sup -1} and ({mu}{sup Grf} {sub {alpha}}, {mu}{sup Grf} {sub {delta}}) = (-2.14 {+-} 0.20, 0.03 {+-} 0.20) mas yr{sup -1}. The implied space velocity with respect to the Galactic center is ({pi}, {theta}, Z) = (141.9 {+-} 6.9, 117 {+-} 29, 238 {+-} 27) km s{sup -1}. This velocity implies that the instantaneous orbital inclination is 67 deg., with a 95% confidence interval of (58 deg., 79 deg.). We also present photometry and membership probabilities for the stars in our sample, which can be used to generate color-magnitude diagrams for stellar populations selected by proper motion.« less
  • We have measured the proper motion of the Draco dwarf galaxy using images at two epochs with a time baseline of about two years taken with the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys. Wide Field Channels 1 and 2 provide two adjacent fields, each containing a known QSO. The zero point for the proper motion is determined using both background galaxies and the QSOs and the two methods produce consistent measurements within each field. Averaging the results from the two fields gives a proper motion in the equatorial coordinate system of (μ{sub α},μ{sub δ})=(17.7±6.3,−22.1±6.3) mas century{sup −1} and inmore » the Galactic coordinate system of (μ{sub ℓ},μ{sub b})=(−23.1±6.3,−16.3±6.3) mas century{sup −1}. Removing the contributions of the motion of the Sun and of the LSR to the measured proper motion yields a Galactic rest-frame proper motion of (μ{sub α}{sup Grf},μ{sub δ}{sup Grf})=(51.4±6.3,−18.7±6.3) mas century{sup −1} and (μ{sub ℓ}{sup Grf},μ{sub b}{sup Grf})=(−21.8±6.3,−50.1±6.3) mas century{sup −1}. The implied space velocity with respect to the Galactic center is (Π,Θ,Z)=(27±14,89±25,−212±20) km s{sup −1}. This velocity implies that the orbital inclination is 70{sup ∘}, with a 95% confidence interval of (59{sup ∘},80{sup ∘}), and that the plane of the orbit is consistent with that of the vast polar structure (VPOS) of Galactic satellite galaxies.« less
  • We analyze data from the Hubble Space Telescope's (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys of the globular cluster (GC) Omega Cen. We construct a photometric catalog of 1.2 x 10{sup 6} stars over a 10' x 10' central field down to below B{sub F435W} = 25 (M {approx} 0.35 M{sub sun}). The 2.5 to 4 year baseline between observations yields a catalog of some 10{sup 5} proper motions over a smaller area, with 53,382 'high-quality' measurements in a central R {approx}< 2' field. Artificial-star tests characterize the photometric incompleteness. We determine the cluster center to {approx}1'' accuracy from star counts usingmore » two different methods, one based on isodensity contours and the other on 'pie slices'. We independently confirm the result by determining also the kinematical center of the HST proper motions, as well as the center of unresolved light seen in Two Micron All Sky Survey data. All results agree to within their 1''-2'' levels of uncertainty. The proper-motion dispersion of the cluster increases gradually inward, but there is no variation in kinematics with position within the central {approx}15'': there is no dispersion cusp and no stars with unusually high velocities. We measure for the first time in any GC the variation in internal kinematics along the main sequence. The variation of proper-motion dispersion with mass shows that the cluster is not yet in equipartition. There are no differences in proper-motion kinematics between the different stellar populations of Omega Cen. Our results do not confirm the arguments put forward by Noyola, Gebhardt, and Bergmann to suspect an intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) in Omega Cen. They determined line-of-sight velocity dispersions in two 5'' x 5'' fields, and reported higher motions in their central field. We find the proper-motion kinematics to be the same in both fields. Also, we find that they (as well as other previous studies) did not accurately identify the cluster center, so that both of their fields are in fact 12'' from the true center. We also do not confirm the central density cusp they reported (in part due to the different center, and in part due to biases induced by their use of unresolved light). The surface number-density distribution near the center does not differ strongly from a single-mass King model, although a shallow cusp may not be ruled out. In the companion paper, which is Paper II in this series, we present new dynamical models for the high-quality data presented here, with the aim of putting quantitative constraints on the mass of any possible IMBH.« less
  • Based on long baseline (5-7 years) multi-epoch HST/ACS photometry, used previously to measure the proper motion of M31, we present the proper motions (PMs) of 13 main-sequence Milky Way halo stars. The sample lies at an average distance of r {approx_equal} 24 kpc from the Galactic center, with a root-mean-square spread of 6 kpc. At this distance, the median PM accuracy is 5 km s{sup -1}. We devise a maximum likelihood routine to determine the tangential velocity ellipsoid of the stellar halo. The velocity second moments in the directions of the Galactic (l, b) system are {sup 1/2}= 123{sup +29}{submore » -23} km s{sup -1}, and {sup 1/2}= 83{sup +24}{sub -16} km s{sup -1}. We combine these results with the known line-of-sight second moment, {sup 1/2}= 105{+-}5 km s{sup -1}, at this (r) to study the velocity anisotropy of the halo. We find approximate isotropy between the radial and tangential velocity distributions, with anisotropy parameter {beta}= 0.0{sup +0.2}{sub -0.4}. Our results suggest that the stellar halo velocity anisotropy out to r {approx} 30 kpc is less radially biased than solar neighborhood measurements. This is opposite to what is expected from violent relaxation, and may indicate the presence of a shell-type structure at r {approx} 24 kpc. With additional multi-epoch HST data, the method presented here has the ability to measure the transverse kinematics of the halo for more stars, and to larger distances. This can yield new improved constraints on the stellar halo formation mechanism, and the mass of the Milky Way.« less
  • We present proper motions for the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC) based on three epochs of Hubble Space Telescope data, spanning a {approx}7 yr baseline, and centered on fields with background QSOs. The first two epochs, the subject of past analyses, were obtained with ACS/HRC, and have been reanalyzed here. The new third epoch with WFC3/UVIS increases the time baseline and provides better control of systematics. The three-epoch data yield proper-motion random errors of only 1%-2% per field. For the LMC this is sufficient to constrain the internal proper-motion dynamics, as will be discussed in a separatemore » paper. Here we focus on the implied center-of-mass proper motions: {mu} {sub W,LMC} = -1.910 {+-} 0.020 mas yr{sup -1}, {mu} {sub N,LMC} = 0.229 {+-} 0.047 mas yr{sup -1}, and {mu} {sub W,SMC} = -0.772 {+-} 0.063 mas yr{sup -1}, {mu} {sub N,SMC} = -1.117 {+-} 0.061 mas yr{sup -1}. We combine the results with a revised understanding of the solar motion in the Milky Way to derive Galactocentric velocities: v {sub tot,LMC} = 321 {+-} 24 km s{sup -1} and v {sub tot,SMC} = 217 {+-} 26 km s{sup -1}. Our proper-motion uncertainties are now dominated by limitations in our understanding of the internal kinematics and geometry of the Clouds, and our velocity uncertainties are dominated by distance errors. Orbit calculations for the Clouds around the Milky Way allow a range of orbital periods, depending on the uncertain masses of the Milky Way and LMC. Periods {approx}< 4 Gyr are ruled out, which poses a challenge for traditional Magellanic Stream models. First-infall orbits are preferred (as supported by other arguments as well) if one imposes the requirement that the LMC and SMC must have been a bound pair for at least several Gyr.« less