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Title: HAZMAT. I. The evolution of far-UV and near-UV emission from early M stars

Abstract

The spectral energy distribution, variability, and evolution of the high-energy radiation from an M dwarf planet host is crucial in understanding the planet's atmospheric evolution and habitability and in interpreting the planet's spectrum. The star's extreme-UV (EUV), far-UV (FUV), and near-UV (NUV) emission can chemically modify, ionize, and erode the atmosphere over time. This makes determining the lifetime exposure of such planets to stellar UV radiation critical for both the evolution of a planet's atmosphere and our potential to characterize it. Using the early M star members of nearby young moving groups, which sample critical ages in planet formation and evolution, we measure the evolution of the GALEX NUV and FUV flux as a function of age. The median UV flux remains at a 'saturated' level for a few hundred million years, analogous to that observed for X-ray emission. By the age of the Hyades Cluster (650 Myr), we measure a drop in UV flux by a factor of 2-3 followed by a steep drop from old (several Gyrs) field stars. This decline in activity beyond 300 Myr follows roughly t {sup –1}. Despite this clear evolution, there remains a wide range, of 1-2 orders of magnitude, in observed emissionmore » levels at every age. These UV data supply the much-needed constraints to M dwarf upper-atmosphere models, which will provide empirically motivated EUV predictions and more accurate age-dependent UV spectra as inputs to planetary photochemical models.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2]
  1. Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States)
  2. Department of Planetary Sciences and Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22342250
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Astronomical Journal (New York, N.Y. Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 148; Journal Issue: 4; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Journal ID: ISSN 1538-3881
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; ATMOSPHERES; AVAILABILITY; EMISSION; ENERGY SPECTRA; EVOLUTION; FAR ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION; FORECASTING; LIFETIME; LIMITING VALUES; NEAR ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION; PHOTOCHEMISTRY; PLANETS; STARS; ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION; ULTRAVIOLET SPECTRA; X RADIATION

Citation Formats

Shkolnik, Evgenya L., and Barman, Travis S., E-mail: shkolnik@lowell.edu, E-mail: barman@lpl.arizona.edu. HAZMAT. I. The evolution of far-UV and near-UV emission from early M stars. United States: N. p., 2014. Web. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/148/4/64.
Shkolnik, Evgenya L., & Barman, Travis S., E-mail: shkolnik@lowell.edu, E-mail: barman@lpl.arizona.edu. HAZMAT. I. The evolution of far-UV and near-UV emission from early M stars. United States. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/148/4/64.
Shkolnik, Evgenya L., and Barman, Travis S., E-mail: shkolnik@lowell.edu, E-mail: barman@lpl.arizona.edu. Wed . "HAZMAT. I. The evolution of far-UV and near-UV emission from early M stars". United States. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/148/4/64.
@article{osti_22342250,
title = {HAZMAT. I. The evolution of far-UV and near-UV emission from early M stars},
author = {Shkolnik, Evgenya L. and Barman, Travis S., E-mail: shkolnik@lowell.edu, E-mail: barman@lpl.arizona.edu},
abstractNote = {The spectral energy distribution, variability, and evolution of the high-energy radiation from an M dwarf planet host is crucial in understanding the planet's atmospheric evolution and habitability and in interpreting the planet's spectrum. The star's extreme-UV (EUV), far-UV (FUV), and near-UV (NUV) emission can chemically modify, ionize, and erode the atmosphere over time. This makes determining the lifetime exposure of such planets to stellar UV radiation critical for both the evolution of a planet's atmosphere and our potential to characterize it. Using the early M star members of nearby young moving groups, which sample critical ages in planet formation and evolution, we measure the evolution of the GALEX NUV and FUV flux as a function of age. The median UV flux remains at a 'saturated' level for a few hundred million years, analogous to that observed for X-ray emission. By the age of the Hyades Cluster (650 Myr), we measure a drop in UV flux by a factor of 2-3 followed by a steep drop from old (several Gyrs) field stars. This decline in activity beyond 300 Myr follows roughly t {sup –1}. Despite this clear evolution, there remains a wide range, of 1-2 orders of magnitude, in observed emission levels at every age. These UV data supply the much-needed constraints to M dwarf upper-atmosphere models, which will provide empirically motivated EUV predictions and more accurate age-dependent UV spectra as inputs to planetary photochemical models.},
doi = {10.1088/0004-6256/148/4/64},
journal = {Astronomical Journal (New York, N.Y. Online)},
issn = {1538-3881},
number = 4,
volume = 148,
place = {United States},
year = {2014},
month = {10}
}