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Title: High-resolution H-band spectroscopy of Be stars with SDSS-III/apogee. I. New Be stars, line identifications, and line profiles

Abstract

The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) has amassed the largest ever collection of multi-epoch, high-resolution (R∼22,500), H-band spectra for B-type emission line (Be) stars. These stars were targeted by APOGEE as telluric standard stars and subsequently identified via visual inspection as Be stars based on H i Brackett series emission or shell absorption in addition to otherwise smooth continua and occasionally non-hydrogen emission features. The 128/238 APOGEE Be stars for which emission had never previously been reported serve to increase the total number of known Be stars by ∼6%. Because the H band is relatively unexplored compared to other wavelength regimes, we focus here on identification of the H-band lines and analysis of the emission peak velocity separations (Δv{sub p}) and emission peak intensity ratios (V/R) of the usually double-peaked H i and non-hydrogen emission lines. H i Br11 emission is found to preferentially form in the circumstellar disks at an average distance of ∼2.2 stellar radii. Increasing Δv{sub p} toward the weaker Br12–Br20 lines suggests these lines are formed interior to Br11. By contrast, the observed IR Fe ii emission lines present evidence of having significantly larger formation radii; distinctive phase lags between IR Fe ii andmore » H i Brackett emission lines further supports that these species arise from different radii in Be disks. Several emission lines have been identified for the first time including C i 16895, a prominent feature in the spectra for almost a fifth of the sample and, as inferred from relatively large Δv{sub p} compared to the Br11–Br20, a tracer of the inner regions of Be disks. Emission lines at 15760 Å and 16781 Å remain unidentified, but usually appear along with and always have similar line profile morphology to Fe ii 16878. Unlike the typical metallic lines observed for Be stars in the optical, the H-band metallic lines, such as Fe ii 16878, never exhibit any evidence of shell absorption, even when the H i lines are clearly shell-dominated. The first known example of a quasi-triple-peaked Br11 line profile is reported for HD 253659, one of several stars exhibiting intra- and/or extra-species V/R and radial velocity variation within individual spectra. Br11 profiles are presented for all discussed stars, as are full APOGEE spectra for a portion of the sample.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ;  [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5]; ; ; ;  [6];  [7];  [8];  [9];  [10];  [11] more »; « less
  1. Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States)
  2. Department of Physics, Austin College, 900 N. Grand Ave., Sherman, TX 75090 (United States)
  3. Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks St., Norman, OK 73019 (United States)
  4. Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400 Austin, Texas 78712-1205 (United States)
  5. Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611-2055 (United States)
  6. Apache Point Observatory and New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM, 88349-0059 (United States)
  7. ELTE Gothard Astrophysical Observatory, 1H-9704 Szombathely, Szent Imre herceg st. 112 (Hungary)
  8. Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 830 Dennison, 500 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1042 (United States)
  9. Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)
  10. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg Center for Physics and Astronomy, Room 366, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)
  11. Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22342158
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astronomical Journal (New York, N.Y. Online); Journal Volume: 149; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; ABSORPTION; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; DISTANCE; EMISSION; GALACTIC EVOLUTION; HYDROGEN; INSPECTION; ISOCHRONOUS CYCLOTRONS; RADIAL VELOCITY; RESOLUTION; SPECTRA; SPECTROSCOPY; STARS; VARIATIONS; WAVELENGTHS

Citation Formats

Chojnowski, S. Drew, Majewski, Steven R., Hall, Matthew, Beaton, Rachael, Burton, Adam, Damke, Guillermo, Wilson, John, Whelan, David G., Wisniewski, John P., Shetrone, Matthew, Eikenberry, Steve, Hasselquist, Sten, Holtzman, Jon A., Brewington, Howard, Brinkmann, J., Mészáros, Szabolcs, Nidever, David, Schneider, Donald P., Zasowski, Gail, Bizyaev, Dmitry, E-mail: drewski@virginia.edu, and and others. High-resolution H-band spectroscopy of Be stars with SDSS-III/apogee. I. New Be stars, line identifications, and line profiles. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/149/1/7.
Chojnowski, S. Drew, Majewski, Steven R., Hall, Matthew, Beaton, Rachael, Burton, Adam, Damke, Guillermo, Wilson, John, Whelan, David G., Wisniewski, John P., Shetrone, Matthew, Eikenberry, Steve, Hasselquist, Sten, Holtzman, Jon A., Brewington, Howard, Brinkmann, J., Mészáros, Szabolcs, Nidever, David, Schneider, Donald P., Zasowski, Gail, Bizyaev, Dmitry, E-mail: drewski@virginia.edu, & and others. High-resolution H-band spectroscopy of Be stars with SDSS-III/apogee. I. New Be stars, line identifications, and line profiles. United States. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/149/1/7.
Chojnowski, S. Drew, Majewski, Steven R., Hall, Matthew, Beaton, Rachael, Burton, Adam, Damke, Guillermo, Wilson, John, Whelan, David G., Wisniewski, John P., Shetrone, Matthew, Eikenberry, Steve, Hasselquist, Sten, Holtzman, Jon A., Brewington, Howard, Brinkmann, J., Mészáros, Szabolcs, Nidever, David, Schneider, Donald P., Zasowski, Gail, Bizyaev, Dmitry, E-mail: drewski@virginia.edu, and and others. Thu . "High-resolution H-band spectroscopy of Be stars with SDSS-III/apogee. I. New Be stars, line identifications, and line profiles". United States. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/149/1/7.
@article{osti_22342158,
title = {High-resolution H-band spectroscopy of Be stars with SDSS-III/apogee. I. New Be stars, line identifications, and line profiles},
author = {Chojnowski, S. Drew and Majewski, Steven R. and Hall, Matthew and Beaton, Rachael and Burton, Adam and Damke, Guillermo and Wilson, John and Whelan, David G. and Wisniewski, John P. and Shetrone, Matthew and Eikenberry, Steve and Hasselquist, Sten and Holtzman, Jon A. and Brewington, Howard and Brinkmann, J. and Mészáros, Szabolcs and Nidever, David and Schneider, Donald P. and Zasowski, Gail and Bizyaev, Dmitry, E-mail: drewski@virginia.edu and and others},
abstractNote = {The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) has amassed the largest ever collection of multi-epoch, high-resolution (R∼22,500), H-band spectra for B-type emission line (Be) stars. These stars were targeted by APOGEE as telluric standard stars and subsequently identified via visual inspection as Be stars based on H i Brackett series emission or shell absorption in addition to otherwise smooth continua and occasionally non-hydrogen emission features. The 128/238 APOGEE Be stars for which emission had never previously been reported serve to increase the total number of known Be stars by ∼6%. Because the H band is relatively unexplored compared to other wavelength regimes, we focus here on identification of the H-band lines and analysis of the emission peak velocity separations (Δv{sub p}) and emission peak intensity ratios (V/R) of the usually double-peaked H i and non-hydrogen emission lines. H i Br11 emission is found to preferentially form in the circumstellar disks at an average distance of ∼2.2 stellar radii. Increasing Δv{sub p} toward the weaker Br12–Br20 lines suggests these lines are formed interior to Br11. By contrast, the observed IR Fe ii emission lines present evidence of having significantly larger formation radii; distinctive phase lags between IR Fe ii and H i Brackett emission lines further supports that these species arise from different radii in Be disks. Several emission lines have been identified for the first time including C i 16895, a prominent feature in the spectra for almost a fifth of the sample and, as inferred from relatively large Δv{sub p} compared to the Br11–Br20, a tracer of the inner regions of Be disks. Emission lines at 15760 Å and 16781 Å remain unidentified, but usually appear along with and always have similar line profile morphology to Fe ii 16878. Unlike the typical metallic lines observed for Be stars in the optical, the H-band metallic lines, such as Fe ii 16878, never exhibit any evidence of shell absorption, even when the H i lines are clearly shell-dominated. The first known example of a quasi-triple-peaked Br11 line profile is reported for HD 253659, one of several stars exhibiting intra- and/or extra-species V/R and radial velocity variation within individual spectra. Br11 profiles are presented for all discussed stars, as are full APOGEE spectra for a portion of the sample.},
doi = {10.1088/0004-6256/149/1/7},
journal = {Astronomical Journal (New York, N.Y. Online)},
number = 1,
volume = 149,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2015},
month = {Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2015}
}