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Title: Proper motion of the Draco dwarf galaxy based on Hubble space telescope imaging

Abstract

We have measured the proper motion of the Draco dwarf galaxy using images at two epochs with a time baseline of about two years taken with the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys. Wide Field Channels 1 and 2 provide two adjacent fields, each containing a known QSO. The zero point for the proper motion is determined using both background galaxies and the QSOs and the two methods produce consistent measurements within each field. Averaging the results from the two fields gives a proper motion in the equatorial coordinate system of (μ{sub α},μ{sub δ})=(17.7±6.3,−22.1±6.3) mas century{sup −1} and in the Galactic coordinate system of (μ{sub ℓ},μ{sub b})=(−23.1±6.3,−16.3±6.3) mas century{sup −1}. Removing the contributions of the motion of the Sun and of the LSR to the measured proper motion yields a Galactic rest-frame proper motion of (μ{sub α}{sup Grf},μ{sub δ}{sup Grf})=(51.4±6.3,−18.7±6.3) mas century{sup −1} and (μ{sub ℓ}{sup Grf},μ{sub b}{sup Grf})=(−21.8±6.3,−50.1±6.3) mas century{sup −1}. The implied space velocity with respect to the Galactic center is (Π,Θ,Z)=(27±14,89±25,−212±20) km s{sup −1}. This velocity implies that the orbital inclination is 70{sup ∘}, with a 95% confidence interval of (59{sup ∘},80{sup ∘}), and that the plane of the orbit is consistent with that of themore » vast polar structure (VPOS) of Galactic satellite galaxies.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3]
  1. Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Rd., Piscataway, NJ 08854-8019 (United States)
  2. Dept. of Physics, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States)
  3. Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22342144
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astronomical Journal (New York, N.Y. Online); Journal Volume: 149; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; DWARF STARS; GALAXIES; IMAGES; INCLINATION; ORBITS; PROPER MOTION; SATELLITES; SPACE; SUN; TELESCOPES; VELOCITY

Citation Formats

Pryor, Carlton, Piatek, Slawomir, and Olszewski, Edward W., E-mail: pryor@physics.rutgers.edu, E-mail: piatek@physics.rutgers.edu, E-mail: eolszewski@as.arizona.edu. Proper motion of the Draco dwarf galaxy based on Hubble space telescope imaging. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/149/2/42.
Pryor, Carlton, Piatek, Slawomir, & Olszewski, Edward W., E-mail: pryor@physics.rutgers.edu, E-mail: piatek@physics.rutgers.edu, E-mail: eolszewski@as.arizona.edu. Proper motion of the Draco dwarf galaxy based on Hubble space telescope imaging. United States. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/149/2/42.
Pryor, Carlton, Piatek, Slawomir, and Olszewski, Edward W., E-mail: pryor@physics.rutgers.edu, E-mail: piatek@physics.rutgers.edu, E-mail: eolszewski@as.arizona.edu. Sun . "Proper motion of the Draco dwarf galaxy based on Hubble space telescope imaging". United States. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/149/2/42.
@article{osti_22342144,
title = {Proper motion of the Draco dwarf galaxy based on Hubble space telescope imaging},
author = {Pryor, Carlton and Piatek, Slawomir and Olszewski, Edward W., E-mail: pryor@physics.rutgers.edu, E-mail: piatek@physics.rutgers.edu, E-mail: eolszewski@as.arizona.edu},
abstractNote = {We have measured the proper motion of the Draco dwarf galaxy using images at two epochs with a time baseline of about two years taken with the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys. Wide Field Channels 1 and 2 provide two adjacent fields, each containing a known QSO. The zero point for the proper motion is determined using both background galaxies and the QSOs and the two methods produce consistent measurements within each field. Averaging the results from the two fields gives a proper motion in the equatorial coordinate system of (μ{sub α},μ{sub δ})=(17.7±6.3,−22.1±6.3) mas century{sup −1} and in the Galactic coordinate system of (μ{sub ℓ},μ{sub b})=(−23.1±6.3,−16.3±6.3) mas century{sup −1}. Removing the contributions of the motion of the Sun and of the LSR to the measured proper motion yields a Galactic rest-frame proper motion of (μ{sub α}{sup Grf},μ{sub δ}{sup Grf})=(51.4±6.3,−18.7±6.3) mas century{sup −1} and (μ{sub ℓ}{sup Grf},μ{sub b}{sup Grf})=(−21.8±6.3,−50.1±6.3) mas century{sup −1}. The implied space velocity with respect to the Galactic center is (Π,Θ,Z)=(27±14,89±25,−212±20) km s{sup −1}. This velocity implies that the orbital inclination is 70{sup ∘}, with a 95% confidence interval of (59{sup ∘},80{sup ∘}), and that the plane of the orbit is consistent with that of the vast polar structure (VPOS) of Galactic satellite galaxies.},
doi = {10.1088/0004-6256/149/2/42},
journal = {Astronomical Journal (New York, N.Y. Online)},
number = 2,
volume = 149,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Feb 01 00:00:00 EST 2015},
month = {Sun Feb 01 00:00:00 EST 2015}
}
  • We have derived a proper motion of Sagittarius using archival data obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope. The data consist of imaging at three epochs with a time baseline of about four years in three distinct fields. The zero point for the proper motion is based on the foreground Galactic stellar populations along the line of sight. The measured proper motion in the Galactic coordinate system is ({mu}{sub l}, {mu} {sub b}) = (-2.615 {+-} 0.22, 1.87 {+-} 0.19) mas yr{sup -1} and in the equatorial coordinate system is ({mu}{sub {alpha}}, {mu}{sub {delta}}) = (-2.75 {+-} 0.20, - 1.65 {+-}more » 0.22) mas yr{sup -1}. Removing the contribution of the motion of the Sun and of the LSR to the measured proper motion produces a Galactic rest-frame proper motion of ({mu}{sup Grf} {sub l}, {mu}{sup Grf} {sub b}) = (-0.82 {+-} 0.22, 1.98 {+-} 0.19) mas yr{sup -1} and ({mu}{sup Grf} {sub {alpha}}, {mu}{sup Grf} {sub {delta}}) = (-2.14 {+-} 0.20, 0.03 {+-} 0.20) mas yr{sup -1}. The implied space velocity with respect to the Galactic center is ({pi}, {theta}, Z) = (141.9 {+-} 6.9, 117 {+-} 29, 238 {+-} 27) km s{sup -1}. This velocity implies that the instantaneous orbital inclination is 67 deg., with a 95% confidence interval of (58 deg., 79 deg.). We also present photometry and membership probabilities for the stars in our sample, which can be used to generate color-magnitude diagrams for stellar populations selected by proper motion.« less
  • We have measured absolute proper motions for the three populations intercepted in the direction of the Galactic globular cluster NGC 6681: the cluster itself, the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy, and the field. For this, we used Hubble Space Telescope ACS/WFC and WFC3/UVIS optical imaging data separated by a temporal baseline of 5.464 yr. Five background galaxies were used to determine the zero point of the absolute-motion reference frame. The resulting absolute proper motion of NGC 6681 is (μ{sub α}cos δ, μ{sub δ}) = (1.58 ± 0.18, –4.57 ± 0.16) mas yr{sup –1}. This is the first estimate ever made formore » this cluster. For the Sgr dSph we obtain (μ{sub α}cos δ, μ{sub δ}) = –2.54 ± 0.18, –1.19 ± 0.16) mas yr{sup –1}, consistent with previous measurements and with the values predicted by theoretical models. The absolute proper motion of the Galaxy population in our field of view is (μ{sub α}cos δ, μ{sub δ}) = (– 1.21 ± 0.27, –4.39 ± 0.26) mas yr{sup –1}. In this study we also use background Sagittarius Dwarf Spheroidal stars to determine the rotation of the globular cluster in the plane of the sky and find that NGC 6681 is not rotating significantly: v {sub rot} = 0.82 ± 1.02 km s{sup –1} at a distance of 1' from the cluster center.« less
  • We present the first absolute proper motion measurement of Leo I, based on two epochs of Hubble Space Telescope ACS/WFC images separated by {approx}5 years in time. The average shift of Leo I stars with respect to {approx}100 background galaxies implies a proper motion of ({mu}{sub W}, {mu}{sub N}) = (0.1140 {+-} 0.0295, -0.1256 {+-} 0.0293) mas yr{sup -1}. The implied Galactocentric velocity vector, corrected for the reflex motion of the Sun, has radial and tangential components V{sub rad} = 167.9 {+-} 2.8 km s{sup -1} and V{sub tan} = 101.0 {+-} 34.4 km s{sup -1}, respectively. We study themore » detailed orbital history of Leo I by solving its equations of motion backward in time for a range of plausible mass models for the Milky Way (MW) and its surrounding galaxies. Leo I entered the MW virial radius 2.33 {+-} 0.21 Gyr ago, most likely on its first infall. It had a pericentric approach 1.05 {+-} 0.09 Gyr ago at a Galactocentric distance of 91 {+-} 36 kpc. We associate these timescales with characteristic timescales in Leo I's star formation history, which shows an enhanced star formation activity {approx}2 Gyr ago and quenching {approx}1 Gyr ago. There is no indication from our calculations that other galaxies have significantly influenced Leo I's orbit, although there is a small probability that it may have interacted with either Ursa Minor or Leo II within the last {approx}1 Gyr. For most plausible MW masses, the observed velocity implies that Leo I is bound to the MW. However, it may not be appropriate to include it in models of the MW satellite population that assume dynamical equilibrium, given its recent infall. Solution of the complete (non-radial) timing equations for the Leo I orbit implies an MW mass M{sub MW,vir} = 3.15{sub -1.36}{sup +1.58} x 10{sup 12} M{sub Sun }, with the large uncertainty dominated by cosmic scatter. In a companion paper, we compare the new observations to the properties of Leo I subhalo analogs extracted from cosmological simulations.« less
  • We present a detailed examination of the brown dwarf multiples 2MASS J08503593+1057156 and 2MASS J17281150+3948593, both suspected of harboring components that straddle the L dwarf/T dwarf transition. Resolved photometry from Hubble Space Telescope/NICMOS shows opposite trends in the relative colors of the components, with the secondary of 2MASS J0850+1057 being redder than its primary, while that of 2MASS J1728+3948 is bluer. We determine near-infrared component types by matching combined-light, near-infrared spectral data to binary templates, with component spectra scaled to resolved NICMOS and K{sub p} photometry. Combinations of L7 + L6 for 2MASS J0850+1057 and L5 + L6.5 for 2MASSmore » J1728+3948 are inferred. Remarkably, the primary of 2MASS J0850+1057 appears to have a later-type classification compared to its secondary, despite being 0.8-1.2 mag brighter in the near-infrared, while the primary of 2MASS J1728+3948 is unusually early for its combined-light optical classification. Comparison to absolute magnitude/spectral type trends also distinguishes these components, with 2MASS J0850+1057A being {approx}1 mag brighter and 2MASS J1728+3948A {approx} 0.5 mag fainter than equivalently classified field counterparts. We deduce that thick condensate clouds are likely responsible for the unusual properties of 2MASS J1728+3948A, while 2MASS J0850+1057A is either an inflated young brown dwarf or a tight unresolved binary, making it potentially part of a wide, low-mass, hierarchical quintuple system.« less
  • We present the first proper-motion (PM) measurements for the galaxy M31. We obtained new V-band imaging data with the Hubble Space Telescope ACS/WFC and the WFC3/UVIS instruments of three fields: a spheroid field near the minor axis, an outer disk field along the major axis, and a field on the Giant Southern Stream. The data provide five to seven year time baselines with respect to pre-existing deep first-epoch observations of the same fields. We measure the positions of thousands of M31 stars and hundreds of compact background galaxies in each field. High accuracy and robustness is achieved by building andmore » fitting a unique template for each individual object. The average PM for each field is obtained from the average motion of the M31 stars between the epochs with respect to the background galaxies. For the three fields, the observed PMs ({mu}{sub W}, {mu}{sub N}) are, in units of mas yr{sup -1}, (- 0.0458, -0.0376) {+-} (0.0165, 0.0154), (- 0.0533, -0.0104) {+-} (0.0246, 0.0244), and (- 0.0179, -0.0357) {+-} (0.0278, 0.0272), respectively. The ability to average over large numbers of objects and over the three fields yields a final displacement accuracy of a few thousandths of a pixel, corresponding to only 12 {mu}as yr{sup -1}. This is comparable to what has been achieved for other Local Group galaxies using Very Long Baseline Array observations of water masers. Potential systematic errors are controlled by an analysis strategy that corrects for detector charge transfer inefficiency, spatially and time-dependent geometric distortion, and point-spread function variations. The robustness of the PM measurements and uncertainties are supported by the fact that data from different instruments, taken at different times and with different telescope orientations, as well as measurements of different fields, all yield statistically consistent results. Papers II and III of this series explore the implications of the new measurements for our understanding of the history, future, and mass of the Local Group.« less