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Title: Silver nanowire based flexible electrodes with improved properties: High conductivity, transparency, adhesion and low haze

Abstract

Graphical abstract: This graphical abstract illustrates the schematic representation of the main drawbacks and rectifications for AgNWs based transparent electrodes. - Highlights: • Films exhibited low sheet resistance and optical properties with R{sub s} ≤ 30 Ω/□ and T ≥ 90%. • We decreased haze to 2% by controlling AgNWs length, diameter, and concentration. • We achieved good adhesion for AgNWs on PET film. • There is no significant change in resistance in the bending angle from 0° to 180°, and on twisting. - Abstract: Recent work has been focusing on solution processable transparent electrodes for various applications including solar cells and displays. As well as, the research aims majorly at silver nanowires (AgNWs) to replace ITO. We enhance the transparent electrode performance as a function of optical and mechanical properties with low sheet resistance, by controlling the AgNWs accept ratios, ink composition, and processing conditions. The nanowire network of transparent films agrees with the 2D percolation law. The film transmittance values at 550 nm are coping with a reference ITO film. Sheet resistance and haze values are suitable for flexible electronic applications. We fabricate transparent flexible film using a low-cost processing technique.

Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22341737
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Materials Research Bulletin; Journal Volume: 48; Journal Issue: 8; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2013 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; ADHESION; ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES; MECHANICAL PROPERTIES; NANOWIRES; SILVER; THIN FILMS

Citation Formats

Kiran Kumar, A.B.V., Wan Bae, Chang, Piao, Longhai, E-mail: piaolh@kongju.ac.kr, and Kim, Sang-Ho, E-mail: sangho1130@kongju.ac.kr. Silver nanowire based flexible electrodes with improved properties: High conductivity, transparency, adhesion and low haze. United States: N. p., 2013. Web. doi:10.1016/J.MATERRESBULL.2013.04.035.
Kiran Kumar, A.B.V., Wan Bae, Chang, Piao, Longhai, E-mail: piaolh@kongju.ac.kr, & Kim, Sang-Ho, E-mail: sangho1130@kongju.ac.kr. Silver nanowire based flexible electrodes with improved properties: High conductivity, transparency, adhesion and low haze. United States. doi:10.1016/J.MATERRESBULL.2013.04.035.
Kiran Kumar, A.B.V., Wan Bae, Chang, Piao, Longhai, E-mail: piaolh@kongju.ac.kr, and Kim, Sang-Ho, E-mail: sangho1130@kongju.ac.kr. 2013. "Silver nanowire based flexible electrodes with improved properties: High conductivity, transparency, adhesion and low haze". United States. doi:10.1016/J.MATERRESBULL.2013.04.035.
@article{osti_22341737,
title = {Silver nanowire based flexible electrodes with improved properties: High conductivity, transparency, adhesion and low haze},
author = {Kiran Kumar, A.B.V. and Wan Bae, Chang and Piao, Longhai, E-mail: piaolh@kongju.ac.kr and Kim, Sang-Ho, E-mail: sangho1130@kongju.ac.kr},
abstractNote = {Graphical abstract: This graphical abstract illustrates the schematic representation of the main drawbacks and rectifications for AgNWs based transparent electrodes. - Highlights: • Films exhibited low sheet resistance and optical properties with R{sub s} ≤ 30 Ω/□ and T ≥ 90%. • We decreased haze to 2% by controlling AgNWs length, diameter, and concentration. • We achieved good adhesion for AgNWs on PET film. • There is no significant change in resistance in the bending angle from 0° to 180°, and on twisting. - Abstract: Recent work has been focusing on solution processable transparent electrodes for various applications including solar cells and displays. As well as, the research aims majorly at silver nanowires (AgNWs) to replace ITO. We enhance the transparent electrode performance as a function of optical and mechanical properties with low sheet resistance, by controlling the AgNWs accept ratios, ink composition, and processing conditions. The nanowire network of transparent films agrees with the 2D percolation law. The film transmittance values at 550 nm are coping with a reference ITO film. Sheet resistance and haze values are suitable for flexible electronic applications. We fabricate transparent flexible film using a low-cost processing technique.},
doi = {10.1016/J.MATERRESBULL.2013.04.035},
journal = {Materials Research Bulletin},
number = 8,
volume = 48,
place = {United States},
year = 2013,
month = 8
}
  • Silver nanowires (AgNWs) are one of the most promising materials to replace commercially available indium tin oxide in flexible transparent conductive films (TCFs); however, there are still numerous problems originating from poor AgNW junction formation and improper AgNW embedment into transparent substrates. To mitigate these problems, high-temperature processes have been adopted; however, unwanted substrate deformation prevents the use of these processes for the formation of flexible TCFs. In this work, we present a novel poly(methyl methacrylate) interlayer plasticized by dibutyl phthalate for low-temperature fabrication of AgNW-based TCFs, which does not cause any substrate deformation. By exploiting the viscoelastic properties ofmore » the plasticized interlayer near the lowered glass-transition temperature, a monolithic junction of AgNWs on the interlayer and embedment of the interconnected AgNWs into the interlayer are achieved in a single-step pressing. The resulting AgNW-TCFs are highly transparent (~92% at a wavelength of 550 nm), highly conductive (<90 Ω/sq), and environmentally and mechanically robust. Therefore, the plasticized interlayer provides a simple and effective route to fabricate high-quality AgNW-based TCFs.« less
  • We demonstrate the use of supersonic spraying for the deposition of silver nanowires (AgNWs) on a flexible polyimide (PI) substrate for the formation of transparent and conducting films (TCF) as an alternative to nonflexible ITO (indium tin oxide). The self-fused intersections of the NWs resulted in films with a low sheet resistance (Rs = 31 ..omega../sq) and fairly high transmittance (Tr = 92%) on a glass substrate. The effect of the impact speed of the supersonically sprayed AgNWs on the opto-electric properties of the flexible TCF was evaluated by varying the spray coating conditions. The fabricated films were characterized bymore » X-ray diffraction analysis, atomic force microscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Finally, cyclic bending tests were performed on the PI/AgNW films as well as PI/ZnO/indium tin oxide/AgNW films, and the changes in their electrical properties with bending were compared.« less
  • Transparent conducting electrodes (TCEs) require high transparency and low sheet resistance for applications in photovoltaics, photodetectors, flat panel displays, touch screen devices, and imagers. Indium tin oxide (ITO), or other transparent conductive oxides, have been used, and provide a baseline sheet resistance (RS) vs. transparency (T) relationship. Several alternative material systems have been investigated. The development of high-performance hybrid structures provides a route towards robust, scalable and low-cost approaches for realizing high-performance TCE.
  • Transparent conducting electrodes (TCEs) require high transparency and low sheet resistance for applications in photovoltaics, photodetectors, flat panel displays, touch screen devices and imagers. Indium tin oxide (ITO), or other transparent conductive oxides, have typically been used, and provide a baseline sheet resistance (RS) vs. transparency (T) relationship. However, ITO is relatively expensive (due to limited abundance of Indium), brittle, unstable, and inflexible; moreover, ITO transparency drops rapidly for wavelengths above 1000 nm. Motivated by a need for transparent conductors with comparable (or better) RS at a given T, as well as flexible structures, several alternative material systems have beenmore » investigated. Single-layer graphene (SLG) or few-layer graphene provide sufficiently high transparency (≈97% per layer) to be a potential replacement for ITO. However, large-area synthesis approaches, including chemical vapor deposition (CVD), typically yield films with relatively high sheet resistance due to small grain sizes and high-resistance grain boundaries (HGBs). In this paper, we report a hybrid structure employing a CVD SLG film and a network of silver nanowires (AgNWs): RS as low as 22 Ω/ (stabilized to 13 Ω/ after 4 months) have been observed at high transparency (88% at λ = 550 nm) in hybrid structures employing relatively low-cost commercial graphene with a starting RS of 770 Ω/. This sheet resistance is superior to typical reported values for ITO, comparable to the best reported TCEs employing graphene and/or random nanowire networks, and the film properties exhibit impressive stability under mechanical pressure, mechanical bending and over time. The design is inspired by the theory of a co-percolating network where conduction bottlenecks of a 2D film (e.g., SLG, MoS2) are circumvented by a 1D network (e.g., AgNWs, CNTs) and vice versa. The development of these high-performance hybrid structures provides a route towards robust, scalable and low-cost approaches for realizing high-performance TCE.« less