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Title: Effect of heat input on the microstructure, residual stresses and corrosion resistance of 304L austenitic stainless steel weldments

Abstract

Austenitic stainless steels are widely used in high performance pressure vessels, nuclear, chemical, process and medical industry due to their very good corrosion resistance and superior mechanical properties. However, austenitic stainless steels are prone to sensitization when subjected to higher temperatures (673 K to 1173 K) during the manufacturing process (e.g. welding) and/or certain applications (e.g. pressure vessels). During sensitization, chromium in the matrix precipitates out as carbides and intermetallic compounds (sigma, chi and Laves phases) decreasing the corrosion resistance and mechanical properties. In the present investigation, 304L austenitic stainless steel was subjected to different heat inputs by shielded metal arc welding process using a standard 308L electrode. The microstructural developments were characterized by using optical microscopy and electron backscattered diffraction, while the residual stresses were measured by X-ray diffraction using the sin{sup 2}ψ method. It was observed that even at the highest heat input, shielded metal arc welding process does not result in significant precipitation of carbides or intermetallic phases. The ferrite content and grain size increased with increase in heat input. The grain size variation in the fusion zone/heat affected zone was not effectively captured by optical microscopy. This study shows that electron backscattered diffraction is necessary tomore » bring out changes in the grain size quantitatively in the fusion zone/heat affected zone as it can consider twin boundaries as a part of grain in the calculation of grain size. The residual stresses were compressive in nature for the lowest heat input, while they were tensile at the highest heat input near the weld bead. The significant feature of the welded region and the base metal was the presence of a very strong texture. The texture in the heat affected zone was almost random. - Highlights: • Effect of heat input on microstructure, residual stresses and corrosion is studied. • HAZ and width of dendrite in the welded region increase with heat input. • Residual stresses are tensile near the welded region after the highest heat input. • Welded region has the highest pit density after highest heat input. • Dendrites and δ-ferrite were highly oriented in the welded region.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology (VNIT), South Ambazari Road, Nagpur 440010, Maharashtra (India)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22340376
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Materials Characterization
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 93; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2014 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Journal ID: ISSN 1044-5803
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; BACKSCATTERING; CARBIDES; CHROMIUM; CORROSION RESISTANCE; DENDRITES; ELECTRON DIFFRACTION; ELECTRONS; FERRITE; FERRITES; GRAIN SIZE; HEAT; HEAT AFFECTED ZONE; INTERMETALLIC COMPOUNDS; MECHANICAL PROPERTIES; OPTICAL MICROSCOPY; RESIDUAL STRESSES; SHIELDED METAL-ARC WELDING; STAINLESS STEEL-304L; X-RAY DIFFRACTION

Citation Formats

Unnikrishnan, Rahul, Idury, K. S.N. Satish,, Ismail, T.P., E-mail: tpisma@gmail.com, Bhadauria, Alok, Shekhawat, S.K., E-mail: satishshekhawat@gmail.com, Khatirkar, Rajesh K., E-mail: rajesh.khatirkar@gmail.com, and Sapate, Sanjay G., E-mail: sgsapate@yahoo.com. Effect of heat input on the microstructure, residual stresses and corrosion resistance of 304L austenitic stainless steel weldments. United States: N. p., 2014. Web. doi:10.1016/J.MATCHAR.2014.03.013.
Unnikrishnan, Rahul, Idury, K. S.N. Satish,, Ismail, T.P., E-mail: tpisma@gmail.com, Bhadauria, Alok, Shekhawat, S.K., E-mail: satishshekhawat@gmail.com, Khatirkar, Rajesh K., E-mail: rajesh.khatirkar@gmail.com, & Sapate, Sanjay G., E-mail: sgsapate@yahoo.com. Effect of heat input on the microstructure, residual stresses and corrosion resistance of 304L austenitic stainless steel weldments. United States. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.MATCHAR.2014.03.013
Unnikrishnan, Rahul, Idury, K. S.N. Satish,, Ismail, T.P., E-mail: tpisma@gmail.com, Bhadauria, Alok, Shekhawat, S.K., E-mail: satishshekhawat@gmail.com, Khatirkar, Rajesh K., E-mail: rajesh.khatirkar@gmail.com, and Sapate, Sanjay G., E-mail: sgsapate@yahoo.com. 2014. "Effect of heat input on the microstructure, residual stresses and corrosion resistance of 304L austenitic stainless steel weldments". United States. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.MATCHAR.2014.03.013.
@article{osti_22340376,
title = {Effect of heat input on the microstructure, residual stresses and corrosion resistance of 304L austenitic stainless steel weldments},
author = {Unnikrishnan, Rahul and Idury, K. S.N. Satish, and Ismail, T.P., E-mail: tpisma@gmail.com and Bhadauria, Alok and Shekhawat, S.K., E-mail: satishshekhawat@gmail.com and Khatirkar, Rajesh K., E-mail: rajesh.khatirkar@gmail.com and Sapate, Sanjay G., E-mail: sgsapate@yahoo.com},
abstractNote = {Austenitic stainless steels are widely used in high performance pressure vessels, nuclear, chemical, process and medical industry due to their very good corrosion resistance and superior mechanical properties. However, austenitic stainless steels are prone to sensitization when subjected to higher temperatures (673 K to 1173 K) during the manufacturing process (e.g. welding) and/or certain applications (e.g. pressure vessels). During sensitization, chromium in the matrix precipitates out as carbides and intermetallic compounds (sigma, chi and Laves phases) decreasing the corrosion resistance and mechanical properties. In the present investigation, 304L austenitic stainless steel was subjected to different heat inputs by shielded metal arc welding process using a standard 308L electrode. The microstructural developments were characterized by using optical microscopy and electron backscattered diffraction, while the residual stresses were measured by X-ray diffraction using the sin{sup 2}ψ method. It was observed that even at the highest heat input, shielded metal arc welding process does not result in significant precipitation of carbides or intermetallic phases. The ferrite content and grain size increased with increase in heat input. The grain size variation in the fusion zone/heat affected zone was not effectively captured by optical microscopy. This study shows that electron backscattered diffraction is necessary to bring out changes in the grain size quantitatively in the fusion zone/heat affected zone as it can consider twin boundaries as a part of grain in the calculation of grain size. The residual stresses were compressive in nature for the lowest heat input, while they were tensile at the highest heat input near the weld bead. The significant feature of the welded region and the base metal was the presence of a very strong texture. The texture in the heat affected zone was almost random. - Highlights: • Effect of heat input on microstructure, residual stresses and corrosion is studied. • HAZ and width of dendrite in the welded region increase with heat input. • Residual stresses are tensile near the welded region after the highest heat input. • Welded region has the highest pit density after highest heat input. • Dendrites and δ-ferrite were highly oriented in the welded region.},
doi = {10.1016/J.MATCHAR.2014.03.013},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22340376}, journal = {Materials Characterization},
issn = {1044-5803},
number = ,
volume = 93,
place = {United States},
year = {2014},
month = {7}
}