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Title: SU-E-T-180: Fano Cavity Test of Proton Transport in Monte Carlo Codes Running On GPU and Xeon Phi

Abstract

Purpose: In proton dose calculation, clinically compatible speeds are now achieved with Monte Carlo codes (MC) that combine 1) adequate simplifications in the physics of transport and 2) the use of hardware architectures enabling massive parallel computing (like GPUs). However, the uncertainties related to the transport algorithms used in these codes must be kept minimal. Such algorithms can be checked with the so-called “Fano cavity test”. We implemented the test in two codes that run on specific hardware: gPMC on an nVidia GPU and MCsquare on an Intel Xeon Phi (60 cores). Methods: gPMC and MCsquare are designed for transporting protons in CT geometries. Both codes use the method of fictitious interaction to sample the step-length for each transport step. The considered geometry is a water cavity (2×2×0.2 cm{sup 3}, 0.001 g/cm{sup 3}) in a 10×10×50 cm{sup 3} water phantom (1 g/cm{sup 3}). CPE in the cavity is established by generating protons over the phantom volume with a uniform momentum (energy E) and a uniform intensity per unit mass I. Assuming no nuclear reactions and no generation of other secondaries, the computed cavity dose should equal IE, according to Fano's theorem. Both codes were tested for initial proton energies ofmore » 50, 100, and 200 MeV. Results: For all energies, gPMC and MCsquare are within 0.3 and 0.2 % of the theoretical value IE, respectively (0.1% standard deviation). Single-precision computations (instead of double) increased the error by about 0.1% in MCsquare. Conclusion: Despite the simplifications in the physics of transport, both gPMC and MCsquare successfully pass the Fano test. This ensures optimal accuracy of the codes for clinical applications within the uncertainties on the underlying physical models. It also opens the path to other applications of these codes, like the simulation of ion chamber response.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ;  [1]; ;  [2]; ;  [3]
  1. Universite catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Brussels (Belgium)
  2. Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)
  3. The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Ctr, Dallas, TX (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22339927
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 41; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2014 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; ACCURACY; ALGORITHMS; AMINO ACIDS; MONTE CARLO METHOD; NUCLEAR REACTIONS; PHANTOMS; PROTON TRANSPORT

Citation Formats

Sterpin, E, Sorriaux, J, Souris, K, Lee, J, Vynckier, S, Schuemann, J, Paganetti, H, Jia, X, and Jiang, S. SU-E-T-180: Fano Cavity Test of Proton Transport in Monte Carlo Codes Running On GPU and Xeon Phi. United States: N. p., 2014. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4888510.
Sterpin, E, Sorriaux, J, Souris, K, Lee, J, Vynckier, S, Schuemann, J, Paganetti, H, Jia, X, & Jiang, S. SU-E-T-180: Fano Cavity Test of Proton Transport in Monte Carlo Codes Running On GPU and Xeon Phi. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4888510.
Sterpin, E, Sorriaux, J, Souris, K, Lee, J, Vynckier, S, Schuemann, J, Paganetti, H, Jia, X, and Jiang, S. Sun . "SU-E-T-180: Fano Cavity Test of Proton Transport in Monte Carlo Codes Running On GPU and Xeon Phi". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4888510.
@article{osti_22339927,
title = {SU-E-T-180: Fano Cavity Test of Proton Transport in Monte Carlo Codes Running On GPU and Xeon Phi},
author = {Sterpin, E and Sorriaux, J and Souris, K and Lee, J and Vynckier, S and Schuemann, J and Paganetti, H and Jia, X and Jiang, S},
abstractNote = {Purpose: In proton dose calculation, clinically compatible speeds are now achieved with Monte Carlo codes (MC) that combine 1) adequate simplifications in the physics of transport and 2) the use of hardware architectures enabling massive parallel computing (like GPUs). However, the uncertainties related to the transport algorithms used in these codes must be kept minimal. Such algorithms can be checked with the so-called “Fano cavity test”. We implemented the test in two codes that run on specific hardware: gPMC on an nVidia GPU and MCsquare on an Intel Xeon Phi (60 cores). Methods: gPMC and MCsquare are designed for transporting protons in CT geometries. Both codes use the method of fictitious interaction to sample the step-length for each transport step. The considered geometry is a water cavity (2×2×0.2 cm{sup 3}, 0.001 g/cm{sup 3}) in a 10×10×50 cm{sup 3} water phantom (1 g/cm{sup 3}). CPE in the cavity is established by generating protons over the phantom volume with a uniform momentum (energy E) and a uniform intensity per unit mass I. Assuming no nuclear reactions and no generation of other secondaries, the computed cavity dose should equal IE, according to Fano's theorem. Both codes were tested for initial proton energies of 50, 100, and 200 MeV. Results: For all energies, gPMC and MCsquare are within 0.3 and 0.2 % of the theoretical value IE, respectively (0.1% standard deviation). Single-precision computations (instead of double) increased the error by about 0.1% in MCsquare. Conclusion: Despite the simplifications in the physics of transport, both gPMC and MCsquare successfully pass the Fano test. This ensures optimal accuracy of the codes for clinical applications within the uncertainties on the underlying physical models. It also opens the path to other applications of these codes, like the simulation of ion chamber response.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4888510},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 41,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Jun 01 00:00:00 EDT 2014},
month = {Sun Jun 01 00:00:00 EDT 2014}
}
  • Purpose: A GPU-based Monte Carlo (MC) simulation package gPMC has been previously developed and high computational efficiency was achieved. This abstract reports our recent improvements on this package in terms of accuracy, functionality, and code portability. Methods: In the latest version of gPMC, nuclear interaction cross section database was updated to include data from TOPAS/Geant4. Inelastic interaction model, particularly the proton scattering angle distribution, was updated to improve overall simulation accuracy. Calculation of dose averaged LET (LETd) was implemented. gPMC was ported onto an OpenCL environment to enable portability across different computing devices (GPUs from different vendors and CPUs). Wemore » also performed comprehensive tests of the code accuracy. Dose from electro-magnetic (EM) interaction channel, primary and secondary proton doses and fluences were scored and compared with those computed by TOPAS. Results: In a homogeneous water phantom with 100 and 200 MeV beams, mean dose differences in EM channel computed by gPMC and by TOPAS were 0.28% and 0.65% of the corresponding maximum dose, respectively. With the Geant4 nuclear interaction cross section data, mean difference of primary proton dose was 0.84% for the 200 MeV case and 0.78% for the 100 MeV case. After updating inelastic interaction model, maximum difference of secondary proton fluence and dose were 0.08% and 0.5% for the 200 MeV beam, and 0.04% and 0.2% for the 100 MeV beam. In a test case with a 150MeV proton beam, the mean difference between LETd computed by gPMC and TOPAS was 0.96% within the proton range. With the OpenCL implementation, gPMC is executable on AMD and Nvidia GPUs, as well as on Intel CPU in single or multiple threads. Results on different platforms agreed within statistical uncertainty. Conclusion: Several improvements have been implemented in the latest version of gPMC, which enhanced its accuracy, functionality, and code portability.« less
  • Purpose: In the scope of reference dosimetry of radiotherapy beams, Monte Carlo (MC) simulations are widely used to compute ionization chamber dose response accurately. Uncertainties related to the transport algorithm can be verified performing self-consistency tests, i.e., the so-called “Fano cavity test.” The Fano cavity test is based on the Fano theorem, which states that under charged particle equilibrium conditions, the charged particle fluence is independent of the mass density of the media as long as the cross-sections are uniform. Such tests have not been performed yet for MC codes simulating proton transport. The objectives of this study are tomore » design a new Fano cavity test for proton MC and to implement the methodology in two MC codes: Geant4 and PENELOPE extended to protons (PENH). Methods: The new Fano test is designed to evaluate the accuracy of proton transport. Virtual particles with an energy ofE{sub 0} and a mass macroscopic cross section of (Σ)/(ρ) are transported, having the ability to generate protons with kinetic energy E{sub 0} and to be restored after each interaction, thus providing proton equilibrium. To perform the test, the authors use a simplified simulation model and rigorously demonstrate that the computed cavity dose per incident fluence must equal (ΣE{sub 0})/(ρ) , as expected in classic Fano tests. The implementation of the test is performed in Geant4 and PENH. The geometry used for testing is a 10 × 10 cm{sup 2} parallel virtual field and a cavity (2 × 2 × 0.2 cm{sup 3} size) in a water phantom with dimensions large enough to ensure proton equilibrium. Results: For conservative user-defined simulation parameters (leading to small step sizes), both Geant4 and PENH pass the Fano cavity test within 0.1%. However, differences of 0.6% and 0.7% were observed for PENH and Geant4, respectively, using larger step sizes. For PENH, the difference is attributed to the random-hinge method that introduces an artificial energy straggling if step size is not small enough. Conclusions: Using conservative user-defined simulation parameters, both PENH and Geant4 pass the Fano cavity test for proton transport. Our methodology is applicable to any kind of charged particle, provided that the considered MC code is able to track the charged particle considered.« less
  • Purpose: In the scope of reference dosimetry of radiotherapy beams, Monte Carlo (MC) simulations are widely used to compute ionization chamber dose response accurately. Uncertainties related to the transport algorithm can be verified performing self-consistency tests, i.e., the so-called “Fano cavity test.” The Fano cavity test is based on the Fano theorem, which states that under charged particle equilibrium conditions, the charged particle fluence is independent of the mass density of the media as long as the cross-sections are uniform. Such tests have not been performed yet for MC codes simulating proton transport. The objectives of this study are tomore » design a new Fano cavity test for proton MC and to implement the methodology in two MC codes: Geant4 and PENELOPE extended to protons (PENH). Methods: The new Fano test is designed to evaluate the accuracy of proton transport. Virtual particles with an energy ofE{sub 0} and a mass macroscopic cross section of (Σ)/(ρ) are transported, having the ability to generate protons with kinetic energy E{sub 0} and to be restored after each interaction, thus providing proton equilibrium. To perform the test, the authors use a simplified simulation model and rigorously demonstrate that the computed cavity dose per incident fluence must equal (ΣE{sub 0})/(ρ) , as expected in classic Fano tests. The implementation of the test is performed in Geant4 and PENH. The geometry used for testing is a 10 × 10 cm{sup 2} parallel virtual field and a cavity (2 × 2 × 0.2 cm{sup 3} size) in a water phantom with dimensions large enough to ensure proton equilibrium. Results: For conservative user-defined simulation parameters (leading to small step sizes), both Geant4 and PENH pass the Fano cavity test within 0.1%. However, differences of 0.6% and 0.7% were observed for PENH and Geant4, respectively, using larger step sizes. For PENH, the difference is attributed to the random-hinge method that introduces an artificial energy straggling if step size is not small enough. Conclusions: Using conservative user-defined simulation parameters, both PENH and Geant4 pass the Fano cavity test for proton transport. Our methodology is applicable to any kind of charged particle, provided that the considered MC code is able to track the charged particle considered.« less
  • Purpose: Monte Carlo simulation on GPU has experienced rapid advancements over the past a few years and tremendous accelerations have been achieved. Yet existing packages were developed only in voxelized geometry. In some applications, e.g. radioactive seed modeling, simulations in more complicated geometry are needed. This abstract reports our initial efforts towards developing a quadric geometry module aiming at expanding the application scope of GPU-based MC simulations. Methods: We defined the simulation geometry consisting of a number of homogeneous bodies, each specified by its material composition and limiting surfaces characterized by quadric functions. A tree data structure was utilized tomore » define geometric relationship between different bodies. We modified our GPU-based photon MC transport package to incorporate this geometry. Specifically, geometry parameters were loaded into GPU’s shared memory for fast access. Geometry functions were rewritten to enable the identification of the body that contains the current particle location via a fast searching algorithm based on the tree data structure. Results: We tested our package in an example problem of HDR-brachytherapy dose calculation for shielded cylinder. The dose under the quadric geometry and that under the voxelized geometry agreed in 94.2% of total voxels within 20% isodose line based on a statistical t-test (95% confidence level), where the reference dose was defined to be the one at 0.5cm away from the cylinder surface. It took 243sec to transport 100million source photons under this quadric geometry on an NVidia Titan GPU card. Compared with simulation time of 99.6sec in the voxelized geometry, including quadric geometry reduced efficiency due to the complicated geometry-related computations. Conclusion: Our GPU-based MC package has been extended to support photon transport simulation in quadric geometry. Satisfactory accuracy was observed with a reduced efficiency. Developments for charged particle transport in this geometry are currently in progress.« less
  • Purpose: A major concern in proton therapy is the production of secondary neutrons causing secondary cancers, especially in young adults and children. Most utilized Monte Carlo codes in proton therapy are Geant4 and MCNP. However, the default versions of Geant4 and MCNP6 do not have suitable cross sections or physical models to properly handle secondary particle production in proton energy ranges used for therapy. In this study, default versions of Geant4 and MCNP6 were modified to better handle production of secondaries by adding the TENDL-2012 cross-section library. Methods: In-water proton depth-dose was measured at the “The Svedberg Laboratory” in Uppsalamore » (Sweden). The proton beam was mono-energetic with mean energy of 178.25±0.2 MeV. The measurement set-up was simulated by Geant4 version 10.00 (default and modified version) and MCNP6. Proton depth-dose, primary and secondary particle fluence and neutron equivalent dose were calculated. In case of Geant4, the secondary particle fluence was filtered by all the physics processes to identify the main process responsible for the difference between the default and modified version. Results: The proton depth-dose curves and primary proton fluence show a good agreement between both Geant4 versions and MCNP6. With respect to the modified version, default Geant4 underestimates the production of secondary neutrons while overestimates that of gammas. The “ProtonInElastic” process was identified as the main responsible process for the difference between the two versions. MCNP6 shows higher neutron production and lower gamma production than both Geant4 versions. Conclusion: Despite the good agreement on the proton depth dose curve and primary proton fluence, there is a significant discrepancy on secondary neutron production between MCNP6 and both versions of Geant4. Further studies are thus in order to find the possible cause of this discrepancy or more accurate cross-sections/models to handle the nuclear interactions of protons with energy ranges used for therapy. NSERC-CRSNG’ CREATE Medical Physics Research Training Network compute calcul CANADA; McGill University health center research institute the fast foundation; LM acknowledges partial support by the CREATE Medical Physics Research Training Network grant of the Natural Sciences and Engineering; Research Council Grant number 432290.« less