# Cosmological QCD phase transition in steady non-equilibrium dissipative Hořava–Lifshitz early universe

## Abstract

We study the phase transition from quark–gluon plasma to hadrons in the early universe in the context of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. According to the standard model of cosmology, a phase transition associated with chiral symmetry breaking after the electro-weak transition has occurred when the universe was about 1–10 μs old. We focus attention on such a phase transition in the presence of a viscous relativistic cosmological background fluid in the framework of non-detailed balance Hořava–Lifshitz cosmology within an effective model of QCD. We consider a flat Friedmann–Robertson–Walker universe filled with a non-causal and a causal bulk viscous cosmological fluid respectively and investigate the effects of the running coupling constants of Hořava–Lifshitz gravity, λ, on the evolution of the physical quantities relevant to a description of the early universe, namely, the temperature T, scale factor a, deceleration parameter q and dimensionless ratio of the bulk viscosity coefficient to entropy density (ξ)/s . We assume that the bulk viscosity cosmological background fluid obeys the evolution equation of the steady truncated (Eckart) and full version of the Israel–Stewart fluid, respectively. -- Highlights: •In this paper we have studied quark–hadron phase transition in the early universe in the context of the Hořava–Lifshitz model. •We use amore »

- Authors:

- Publication Date:

- OSTI Identifier:
- 22314838

- Resource Type:
- Journal Article

- Journal Name:
- Annals of Physics (New York)

- Additional Journal Information:
- Journal Volume: 346; Journal Issue: Complete; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2014 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Journal ID: ISSN 0003-4916

- Country of Publication:
- United States

- Language:
- English

- Subject:
- 72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS; 79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; CHIRAL SYMMETRY; COSMOLOGY; COUPLING CONSTANTS; ENTROPY; EQUILIBRIUM; EVOLUTION; GRAVITATION; HADRONS; INFLATIONARY UNIVERSE; PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS; QUANTUM CHROMODYNAMICS; QUARK MATTER; QUARKS; RELATIVISTIC RANGE; STANDARD MODEL; SYMMETRY BREAKING; THERMODYNAMICS; UNIVERSE; VISCOSITY

### Citation Formats

```
Khodadi, M., E-mail: M.Khodadi@sbu.ac.ir, and Sepangi, H.R., E-mail: hr-sepangi@sbu.ac.ir.
```*Cosmological QCD phase transition in steady non-equilibrium dissipative Hořava–Lifshitz early universe*. United States: N. p., 2014.
Web. doi:10.1016/J.AOP.2014.04.012.

```
Khodadi, M., E-mail: M.Khodadi@sbu.ac.ir, & Sepangi, H.R., E-mail: hr-sepangi@sbu.ac.ir.
```*Cosmological QCD phase transition in steady non-equilibrium dissipative Hořava–Lifshitz early universe*. United States. doi:10.1016/J.AOP.2014.04.012.

```
Khodadi, M., E-mail: M.Khodadi@sbu.ac.ir, and Sepangi, H.R., E-mail: hr-sepangi@sbu.ac.ir. Tue .
"Cosmological QCD phase transition in steady non-equilibrium dissipative Hořava–Lifshitz early universe". United States. doi:10.1016/J.AOP.2014.04.012.
```

```
@article{osti_22314838,
```

title = {Cosmological QCD phase transition in steady non-equilibrium dissipative Hořava–Lifshitz early universe},

author = {Khodadi, M., E-mail: M.Khodadi@sbu.ac.ir and Sepangi, H.R., E-mail: hr-sepangi@sbu.ac.ir},

abstractNote = {We study the phase transition from quark–gluon plasma to hadrons in the early universe in the context of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. According to the standard model of cosmology, a phase transition associated with chiral symmetry breaking after the electro-weak transition has occurred when the universe was about 1–10 μs old. We focus attention on such a phase transition in the presence of a viscous relativistic cosmological background fluid in the framework of non-detailed balance Hořava–Lifshitz cosmology within an effective model of QCD. We consider a flat Friedmann–Robertson–Walker universe filled with a non-causal and a causal bulk viscous cosmological fluid respectively and investigate the effects of the running coupling constants of Hořava–Lifshitz gravity, λ, on the evolution of the physical quantities relevant to a description of the early universe, namely, the temperature T, scale factor a, deceleration parameter q and dimensionless ratio of the bulk viscosity coefficient to entropy density (ξ)/s . We assume that the bulk viscosity cosmological background fluid obeys the evolution equation of the steady truncated (Eckart) and full version of the Israel–Stewart fluid, respectively. -- Highlights: •In this paper we have studied quark–hadron phase transition in the early universe in the context of the Hořava–Lifshitz model. •We use a flat FRW universe with the bulk viscosity cosmological background fluid obeying the evolution equation of the steady truncated (Eckart) and full version of the Israel–Stewart fluid, respectively.},

doi = {10.1016/J.AOP.2014.04.012},

journal = {Annals of Physics (New York)},

issn = {0003-4916},

number = Complete,

volume = 346,

place = {United States},

year = {2014},

month = {7}

}