skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Phase modulation mode of scanning ion conductance microscopy

Abstract

This Letter reports a phase modulation (PM) mode of scanning ion conductance microscopy. In this mode, an AC current is directly generated by an AC voltage between the electrodes. The portion of the AC current in phase with the AC voltage, which is the current through the resistance path, is modulated by the tip-sample distance. It can be used as the input of feedback control to drive the scanner in Z direction. The PM mode, taking the advantages of both DC mode and traditional AC mode, is less prone to electronic noise and DC drift but maintains high scanning speed. The effectiveness of the PM mode has been proven by experiments.

Authors:
;  [1];  [2]; ; ;  [1];  [3]
  1. State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)
  2. (China)
  3. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22314700
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Applied Physics Letters; Journal Volume: 105; Journal Issue: 5; Other Information: (c) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; CLOSED-LOOP CONTROL; ELECTRIC CURRENTS; ELECTRODES; IONS; MODULATION; SCANNING TUNNELING MICROSCOPY

Citation Formats

Li, Peng, Zhang, Changlin, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, Liu, Lianqing, E-mail: lqliu@sia.cn, E-mail: gli@engr.pitt.edu, Wang, Yuechao, Yang, Yang, and Li, Guangyong, E-mail: lqliu@sia.cn, E-mail: gli@engr.pitt.edu. Phase modulation mode of scanning ion conductance microscopy. United States: N. p., 2014. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4891571.
Li, Peng, Zhang, Changlin, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, Liu, Lianqing, E-mail: lqliu@sia.cn, E-mail: gli@engr.pitt.edu, Wang, Yuechao, Yang, Yang, & Li, Guangyong, E-mail: lqliu@sia.cn, E-mail: gli@engr.pitt.edu. Phase modulation mode of scanning ion conductance microscopy. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4891571.
Li, Peng, Zhang, Changlin, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, Liu, Lianqing, E-mail: lqliu@sia.cn, E-mail: gli@engr.pitt.edu, Wang, Yuechao, Yang, Yang, and Li, Guangyong, E-mail: lqliu@sia.cn, E-mail: gli@engr.pitt.edu. Mon . "Phase modulation mode of scanning ion conductance microscopy". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4891571.
@article{osti_22314700,
title = {Phase modulation mode of scanning ion conductance microscopy},
author = {Li, Peng and Zhang, Changlin and University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 and Liu, Lianqing, E-mail: lqliu@sia.cn, E-mail: gli@engr.pitt.edu and Wang, Yuechao and Yang, Yang and Li, Guangyong, E-mail: lqliu@sia.cn, E-mail: gli@engr.pitt.edu},
abstractNote = {This Letter reports a phase modulation (PM) mode of scanning ion conductance microscopy. In this mode, an AC current is directly generated by an AC voltage between the electrodes. The portion of the AC current in phase with the AC voltage, which is the current through the resistance path, is modulated by the tip-sample distance. It can be used as the input of feedback control to drive the scanner in Z direction. The PM mode, taking the advantages of both DC mode and traditional AC mode, is less prone to electronic noise and DC drift but maintains high scanning speed. The effectiveness of the PM mode has been proven by experiments.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4891571},
journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
number = 5,
volume = 105,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Aug 04 00:00:00 EDT 2014},
month = {Mon Aug 04 00:00:00 EDT 2014}
}
  • Scanning ion conductance microscopy imaging of battery electrodes, using the geometry shown in the figure, is a tool for in situ nanoscale mapping of surface topography and local ion current. Images of silicon and tin electrodes show that the combination of topography and ion current provides insight into the local electrochemical phenomena that govern the operation of lithium ion batteries.
  • Scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM) is an emerging tool for the noncontact investigation of biological samples such as live cells. It uses an ion current through the opening of a tapered nanopipette filled with an electrolyte for topography measurements. Despite its successful application to numerous systems no systematic investigation of the image formation process has yet been performed. Here, we use finite element modeling to investigate how the scanning ion conductance microscope images small particles on a planar surface, providing a fundamental characterization of the imaging process. We find that a small particle appears with a height that is onlymore » a fraction of its actual height. This has significant consequences for the quantitative interpretation of SICM images. Furthermore, small and low particles are imaged as rings in certain cases. This can cause small, closely spaced particles to appear with a lateral orientation that is rotated by 90 deg. Considering both real space and spatial frequency space we find that a reasonable and useful definition of lateral resolution of SICM is the smallest distance at which two small particles can clearly be resolved from each other in an image. We find that this resolution is approximately equal to three times the inner radius of the pipette tip opening.« less
  • The electronic structure of atomic surfaces is imaged by applying multivariate image classification techniques to multibias conductance data measured using scanning tunneling microscopy. Image pixels are grouped into classes according to shared conductance characteristics. The image pixels, when color coded by class, produce an image that chemically distinguishes surface electronic features over the entire area of a multibias conductance image. Such {open_quotes}classed{close_quotes} images reveal surface features not always evident in a topograph. This article describes the experimental technique used to record multibias conductance images, how image pixels are grouped in a mathematical, classification space, how a computed grouping algorithm canmore » be employed to group pixels with similar conductance characteristics in any number of dimensions, and finally how the quality of the resulting classed images can be evaluated using a computed, combinatorial analysis of the full dimensional space in which the classification is performed. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}« less
  • Several patterned monolayers of alkanethiols CH{sub 3}(CH{sub 2}){sub n-1}SH on a polycrystalline Au substrate were prepared by using microcontact printing and solution deposition methods, and their surfaces were examined by IR spectroscopy, scanning force microscopy, lateral force microscopy (LFM), and force modulation microscopy (FMM). Our work shows that LFM and FMM can detect differences in packing density of chemically identical molecules which are too small to be detected by IR, ellipsometry, and wetting measurements and suggests that the tip-sample contact area is an important parameter governing the contrasts of LFM and FMM images. Stiffness images obtained with FMM depend onmore » changes in the Young`s modulus of a sample surface as well as in the tip-sample contact area. As a result, a surface region of small modulus can have a large stiffness due to its large contact area. 26 refs., 2 figs.« less