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Title: Angle-specific transparent conducting electrodes with metallic gratings

Abstract

Transparent conducting electrodes, which are not made from indium tin oxide, and which display a strong angular dependence are useful for various technologies. Here, we introduce a tilted silver grating that combines a large conductance with a strong and angle-specific transmittance. When the light incidence angle matches the tilt angle of the grating, transmittance is close to the maximum along a very broadband range. We explain the behavior through simulations that show in detail the plasmonic and interference effects at play.

Authors:
;  [1]
  1. Micro- and Nanophotonic Materials Group, Faculty of Science, University of Mons, Avenue Maistriau 19, B-7000 Mons (Belgium)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22314530
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Applied Physics; Journal Volume: 116; Journal Issue: 5; Other Information: (c) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; ELECTRODES; GRATINGS; INCIDENCE ANGLE; INDIUM; INTERFERENCE; SILVER; SIMULATION; TIN OXIDES

Citation Formats

Rivolta, N. X. A., E-mail: nicolas.rivolta@umons.ac.be, and Maes, B.. Angle-specific transparent conducting electrodes with metallic gratings. United States: N. p., 2014. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4886381.
Rivolta, N. X. A., E-mail: nicolas.rivolta@umons.ac.be, & Maes, B.. Angle-specific transparent conducting electrodes with metallic gratings. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4886381.
Rivolta, N. X. A., E-mail: nicolas.rivolta@umons.ac.be, and Maes, B.. Thu . "Angle-specific transparent conducting electrodes with metallic gratings". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4886381.
@article{osti_22314530,
title = {Angle-specific transparent conducting electrodes with metallic gratings},
author = {Rivolta, N. X. A., E-mail: nicolas.rivolta@umons.ac.be and Maes, B.},
abstractNote = {Transparent conducting electrodes, which are not made from indium tin oxide, and which display a strong angular dependence are useful for various technologies. Here, we introduce a tilted silver grating that combines a large conductance with a strong and angle-specific transmittance. When the light incidence angle matches the tilt angle of the grating, transmittance is close to the maximum along a very broadband range. We explain the behavior through simulations that show in detail the plasmonic and interference effects at play.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4886381},
journal = {Journal of Applied Physics},
number = 5,
volume = 116,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Aug 07 00:00:00 EDT 2014},
month = {Thu Aug 07 00:00:00 EDT 2014}
}
  • The authors investigate light absorption in organic solar cells in which indium tin oxide (ITO) is replaced by a new metallic architecture (grating) as a transparent electrode. Different from typical metal nanowire gratings, our gratings consist of metal nanowalls with nanoscale footprint and (sub)microscale height [Adv. Mater. 23, 2469 (2011)], thus ensuring high optical transmittance and electrical conductivity. Simulations reveal that a broadband and polarization-insensitive light absorption enhancement is achieved via two mechanisms, when such silver nanowall gratings are employed in P3HT:PCBM based solar cells. Overall absorption enhanced by ~23% compared to a reference cell with ITO electrode.
  • In this work, we demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally that nonperiodic metallic gratings can become transparent for broadband terahertz waves. It is shown that broadband high transmission appears in aperiodic metallic gratings (including quasiperiodic and disordered ones), which originates from the nonresonant excitations in the grating system. Quasiperiodic and disordered metallic gratings effectively weaken and even eliminate Wood's anomalies, which are the diffraction-related characters of periodic gratings. Consequently, both the transparence bandwidth and transmission efficiency are significantly increased due to the structural aperiodicity. An optimal condition is also achieved for broadband high transparency in aperiodicmetallic gratings. Experimental measurements at themore » terahertz regime reasonably agree with both analytical analysis and numerical simulations. Furthermore, we show that for a specific light source, for example, a line source, a corresponding nonperiodic transparent grating can be also designed. We expect that our findings can be applied for transparent conducting panels, perfect white-beam polarizers, antireflective conducting solar cells, and beyond.« less
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  • A simulation tool based on the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique is developed to model the electromagnetic interaction of a focused optical Gaussian beam in two dimensions incident on a simple model of a corrugated dielectric surface plated with a thin film of realistic metal. The technique is a hybrid approach that combines an intensive numerical method near the surface of the grating, which takes into account the optical properties of metals, with a free-space transform to obtain the radiated fields. A description of this technique is presented along with numerical examples comparing gratings made with realistic and perfect conductors. Inmore » particular, a demonstration is given of an obliquely incident beam focused on a uniform grating and a normally incident beam focused on a nonuniform grating. The gratings in these two cases are coated with a negative-permittivity thin film, and the scattered radiation patterns for these structures are studied. Both TE and TM polarizations are investigated. Using this hybrid FDTD technique results in a complete and accurate simulation of the total electromagnetic field in the near field as well as in the far field of the grating. It is shown that there are significant differences in the performances of the realistic metal and the perfect metal gratings.« less