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Title: Analyzer-based phase-contrast imaging system using a micro focus x-ray source

Abstract

Here we describe a new in-laboratory analyzer based phase contrast-imaging (ABI) instrument using a conventional X-ray tube source (CXS) aimed at bio-medical imaging applications. Phase contrast-imaging allows visualization of soft tissue details usually obscured in conventional X-ray imaging. The ABI system design and major features are described in detail. The key advantage of the presented system, over the few existing CXS ABI systems, is that it does not require high precision components, i.e., CXS, X-ray detector, and electro-mechanical components. To overcome a main problem introduced by these components, identified as temperature stability, the system components are kept at a constant temperature inside of three enclosures, thus minimizing the electrical and mechanical thermal drifts. This is achieved by using thermoelectric (Peltier) cooling/heating modules that are easy to control precisely. For CXS we utilized a microfocus X-ray source with tungsten (W) anode material. In addition the proposed system eliminates tungsten's multiple spectral lines by selecting monochromator crystal size appropriately therefore eliminating need for the costly mismatched, two-crystal monochromator. The system imaging was fine-tuned for tungsten Kα{sub 1} line with the energy of 59.3 keV since it has been shown to be of great clinical significance by a number of researchers at synchrotron facilities.more » In this way a laboratory system that can be used for evaluating and quantifying tissue properties, initially explored at synchrotron facilities, would be of great interest to a larger research community. To demonstrate the imaging capability of our instrument we use a chicken thigh tissue sample.« less

Authors:
 [1]; ;  [2]
  1. BME Department, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois 60616 (United States)
  2. ECE Department, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois 60616 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22314433
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Review of Scientific Instruments; Journal Volume: 85; Journal Issue: 8; Other Information: (c) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; ACCURACY; ANIMAL TISSUES; CHICKENS; CRYSTALS; FOCUSING; KEV RANGE; LABORATORY SYSTEM; MONOCHROMATORS; SYNCHROTRONS; THERMOELECTRIC COOLERS; THERMOELECTRIC HEATERS; TUNGSTEN; X-RAY RADIOGRAPHY; X-RAY SOURCES; X-RAY TUBES

Citation Formats

Zhou, Wei, Majidi, Keivan, and Brankov, Jovan G., E-mail: brankov@iit.edu. Analyzer-based phase-contrast imaging system using a micro focus x-ray source. United States: N. p., 2014. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4890281.
Zhou, Wei, Majidi, Keivan, & Brankov, Jovan G., E-mail: brankov@iit.edu. Analyzer-based phase-contrast imaging system using a micro focus x-ray source. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4890281.
Zhou, Wei, Majidi, Keivan, and Brankov, Jovan G., E-mail: brankov@iit.edu. Fri . "Analyzer-based phase-contrast imaging system using a micro focus x-ray source". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4890281.
@article{osti_22314433,
title = {Analyzer-based phase-contrast imaging system using a micro focus x-ray source},
author = {Zhou, Wei and Majidi, Keivan and Brankov, Jovan G., E-mail: brankov@iit.edu},
abstractNote = {Here we describe a new in-laboratory analyzer based phase contrast-imaging (ABI) instrument using a conventional X-ray tube source (CXS) aimed at bio-medical imaging applications. Phase contrast-imaging allows visualization of soft tissue details usually obscured in conventional X-ray imaging. The ABI system design and major features are described in detail. The key advantage of the presented system, over the few existing CXS ABI systems, is that it does not require high precision components, i.e., CXS, X-ray detector, and electro-mechanical components. To overcome a main problem introduced by these components, identified as temperature stability, the system components are kept at a constant temperature inside of three enclosures, thus minimizing the electrical and mechanical thermal drifts. This is achieved by using thermoelectric (Peltier) cooling/heating modules that are easy to control precisely. For CXS we utilized a microfocus X-ray source with tungsten (W) anode material. In addition the proposed system eliminates tungsten's multiple spectral lines by selecting monochromator crystal size appropriately therefore eliminating need for the costly mismatched, two-crystal monochromator. The system imaging was fine-tuned for tungsten Kα{sub 1} line with the energy of 59.3 keV since it has been shown to be of great clinical significance by a number of researchers at synchrotron facilities. In this way a laboratory system that can be used for evaluating and quantifying tissue properties, initially explored at synchrotron facilities, would be of great interest to a larger research community. To demonstrate the imaging capability of our instrument we use a chicken thigh tissue sample.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4890281},
journal = {Review of Scientific Instruments},
number = 8,
volume = 85,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Aug 15 00:00:00 EDT 2014},
month = {Fri Aug 15 00:00:00 EDT 2014}
}
  • We have performed an analyzer crystal based phase contrast imaging (ABI) experiment using a rotating anode x-ray source. The use of such an incoherent source demonstrates the potential of ABI as a quantitative characterization tool for the laboratory environment. A phase contrast image of a plastic phantom was recorded on high resolution x-ray film and the projected thickness was retrieved from a single image. The projected thickness recovered from the phase contrast image was shown to quantitatively agree with a reference optical microscope measurement.
  • Several recent papers have shown the implementation of analyzer based X-ray phase contrast imaging (ABI) with conventional X-ray sources. The high flux is always a requirement to make the technique useful for bio-medical applications. Here, we present and discuss three important parameters, which need to be taken into account, when searching for the high flux ABI: anisotropic magnification, double image, and source size spread due to intrinsic dispersive diffraction by asymmetrically cut crystals. These parameters, if not well optimized, may cause important features in the acquired images which can mislead the interpretation. A few ways to minimize these effects aremore » implemented and discussed, including some experimental results.« less
  • To more accurately suppress the phase fluctuation of the interference beams of a large-area phase-contrast X-ray imaging system using a two-crystal X-ray interferometer, a new feedback positioning system (FPS) has been developed and applied. The motion of interference patterns replaces the intensity of the interference beam in a small region as the feedback signal used in controlling the rotation of crystal blocks relative to each other. This FPS kept the phase fluctuation of the interference beams within {pi}/15 over more than six hours. Examples of high-quality two and three-dimensional images of biological samples obtained by the imaging system with themore » new FPS are given.« less
  • Laser-Compton scattering (LCS) x-ray sources have recently attracted much attention for their potential use at local medical facilities because they can produce ultrashort pulsed, high-brilliance, and quasimonochromatic hard x rays with a small source size. The feasibility of in-line phase-contrast imaging for a 'thick' biological specimens of rat lumbar vertebrae using the developed compact LCS-X in AIST was investigated for the promotion of clinical imaging. In the higher-quality images, anatomical details of the spinous processes of the vertebrae are more clearly observable than with conventional absorption radiography. The results demonstrate that phase-contrast radiography can be performed using LCS-X.