skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Physics-based simulation of EM and SM in TSV-based 3D IC structures

Abstract

Evolution of stresses in through-silicon-vias (TSVs) and in the TSV landing pad due to the stress migration (SM) and electromigration (EM) phenomena are considered. It is shown that an initial stress distribution existing in a TSV depends on its architecture and copper fill technology. We demonstrate that in the case of proper copper annealing the SM-induced redistribution of atoms results in uniform distributions of the hydrostatic stress and concentration of vacancies along each segment. In this case, applied EM stressing generates atom migration that is characterized by kinetics depending on the preexisting equilibrium concentration of vacancies. Stress-induced voiding in TSV is considered. EM induced voiding in TSV landing pad is analyzed in details.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3]
  1. Mentor Graphics Corp., 0012 Yerevan (Armenia)
  2. Mentor Graphics Corp., Fremont, CA 94538 (United States)
  3. Fraunhofer Institute for Nondestructive Testing IZFP, D-01109 Dresden (Germany)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22311259
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: AIP Conference Proceedings; Journal Volume: 1601; Journal Issue: 1; Conference: International conference on stress induced phenomena and reliability in 3D microelectronics, Kyoto (Japan), 28-30 May 2012; Other Information: (c) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; ANNEALING; ATOMS; CONCENTRATION RATIO; COPPER; ELECTROPHORESIS; EQUILIBRIUM; SILICON; STRESSES; VACANCIES

Citation Formats

Kteyan, Armen, Sukharev, Valeriy, and Zschech, Ehrenfried. Physics-based simulation of EM and SM in TSV-based 3D IC structures. United States: N. p., 2014. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4881345.
Kteyan, Armen, Sukharev, Valeriy, & Zschech, Ehrenfried. Physics-based simulation of EM and SM in TSV-based 3D IC structures. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4881345.
Kteyan, Armen, Sukharev, Valeriy, and Zschech, Ehrenfried. 2014. "Physics-based simulation of EM and SM in TSV-based 3D IC structures". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4881345.
@article{osti_22311259,
title = {Physics-based simulation of EM and SM in TSV-based 3D IC structures},
author = {Kteyan, Armen and Sukharev, Valeriy and Zschech, Ehrenfried},
abstractNote = {Evolution of stresses in through-silicon-vias (TSVs) and in the TSV landing pad due to the stress migration (SM) and electromigration (EM) phenomena are considered. It is shown that an initial stress distribution existing in a TSV depends on its architecture and copper fill technology. We demonstrate that in the case of proper copper annealing the SM-induced redistribution of atoms results in uniform distributions of the hydrostatic stress and concentration of vacancies along each segment. In this case, applied EM stressing generates atom migration that is characterized by kinetics depending on the preexisting equilibrium concentration of vacancies. Stress-induced voiding in TSV is considered. EM induced voiding in TSV landing pad is analyzed in details.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4881345},
journal = {AIP Conference Proceedings},
number = 1,
volume = 1601,
place = {United States},
year = 2014,
month = 6
}
  • In this paper, the interplay of Bragg scattering and local resonance is theoretically studied in a phononic crystal (PnC) structure composed of a silicon membrane with periodic tungsten pillars. The comparison of phononic band gaps (PnBGs) in three different lattice types (i.e., square, triangular, and honeycomb) with different pillar geometries shows that different PnBGs have varying degrees of dependency on the lattice symmetry based on the interplay of the local resonances and the Bragg effect. The details of this interplay is discussed. The significance of locally resonating pillars, specially in the case of tall pillars, on PnBGs is discussed andmore » verified by examining the PnBG position and width in perturbed lattices via Monte Carlo simulations. It is shown that the PnBGs caused by the local resonance of the pillars are more resilient to the lattice perturbations than those caused by Bragg scattering.« less
  • Numerical simulation of nuclear reactors is a key technology in the quest for improvements in efficiency, safety, and reliability of both existing and future reactor designs. Historically, simulation of an entire reactor was accomplished by linking together multiple existing codes that each simulated a subset of the relevant multiphysics phenomena. Recent advances in the MOOSE (Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment) framework have enabled a new approach: multiple domain-specific applications, all built on the same software framework, are efficiently linked to create a cohesive application. This is accomplished with a flexible coupling capability that allows for a variety of different datamore » exchanges to occur simultaneously on high performance parallel computational hardware. Examples based on the KAIST-3A benchmark core, as well as a simplified Westinghouse AP-1000 configuration, demonstrate the power of this new framework for tackling—in a coupled, multiscale manner—crucial reactor phenomena such as CRUD-induced power shift and fuel shuffle. 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-SA license« less
  • The unsteady pressure and boundary layers on a turbomachinery blade row arising from periodic wakes due to upstream blade rows are investigated in this paper. Numerical simulations are carried out to understand the effects of the wake velocity defect and the wake turbulence intensity on the development of unsteady blade boundary layers. The boundary layer transition on the blade is found to be strongly influenced by the unsteady wake passing. Periodic transitional patches are generated by the high turbulence intensity in the passing wakes and transported downstream. The time-dependent transition results in large unsteadiness in the instantaneous local skin frictionmore » coefficient and a smoother time-averaged transition curve than the one observed in the steady boundary layer. A parametric study is then carried out to determine the influence of wake parameters on the development of the unsteady blade boundary layers. It is shown that the unsteadiness in the blade boundary layer increases with a decrease in the axial gap, an increase in wake/blade count ratio, or an increase in the wake traverse speed. The time-averaged boundary layer momentum thickness at the trailing edge of the blade is found to increase significantly for higher wake/blade count ratio and larger wake traverse speed. Increase of the wake/blade count ratio also results in higher frictional drag of the blade.« less
  • Three new Keggin polyoxometalate (POM)-based compounds linked to 3d metal complexes have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions: [Cu(phen){sub 2}]{sub 2}{l_brace}[Cu(phen)]{sub 2} [SiMo{sub 12}O{sub 4}(VO){sub 2}]{r_brace} (1), {l_brace}[Zn(phen){sub 2}]{sub 2}[GeMo{sub 12}O{sub 4}(VO){sub 2}]{r_brace}{l_brace}[Zn(phen){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)]{sub 2} [GeMo{sub 12}O{sub 4}(VO){sub 2}]{r_brace}.3H{sub 2}O (2) and {l_brace}[Co(phen){sub 2}]{sub 2}[PMo{sub 12}O{sub 4}(VO){sub 2}]{r_brace}{l_brace}[Co(phen){sub 2}(OH)]{sub 2} [PMo{sub 12}O{sub 4}(VO){sub 2}]{r_brace}.2.5H{sub 2}O (3) (phen=1,10-phenanthroline). These three compounds present, as building blocks, the bicapped Keggin anions [XMo{sub 12}O{sub 4}(VO){sub 2}] (X=Si, Ge and P). Compound 1 consists of a bicapped Keggin anion [SiMo{sub 12}O{sub 4}(VO){sub 2}]{sup 2-} linked to two [Cu(phen)]{sup +} complexes with two [Cu(phen){sub 2}]{sup +}more » countercations. Compound 2 contains two bicapped Keggin anions [GeMo{sub 12}O{sub 4}(VO){sub 2}]{sup 4-}, one linked to two [Zn(phen){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)]{sup 2+} cations and the other one linked to two [Zn(phen){sub 2}]{sup 2+} cations. Compound 3 is a two-dimensional POM-based square network formed by bicapped Keggin anions [PMo{sub 12}O{sub 4}(VO){sub 2}]{sup 4-} connected by [Co(phen){sub 2}]{sup 2+} cations. Discrete bicapped Keggin anions [PMo{sub 12}O{sub 4}(VO){sub 2}] linked to two [Co(phen){sub 2}(OH)]{sup +} cations are located between the layers. The magnetic properties show the presence of antiferromagnetic interactions among the reduced Mo(V) atoms (in the three compounds) plus a paramagnetic contribution from the V(IV) atoms (in 1 and 2). Compound 3 shows, in addition, an antiferromagnetic interaction between the Co(II) and the V(IV) ions directly linked through an oxygen bridge. The low-temperature ESR spectra of compound 3 confirm the presence of the reduced Mo(V) ions and the antiferromagnetic coupling between the Co(II) and the V(IV) ions. -- Graphical abstract: Three new Keggin polyoxometalate-based compounds have been synthesized under hydrothermal condition. These three compounds present the bicapped Keggin anions [XMo{sub 12}O{sub 4}(VO){sub 2}] (X=Si, Ge and P) as building blocks. Among the three compounds, compound 3 is a two-dimensional polyoxometalate-based square network formed by bicapped Keggin anions [PMo{sub 12}O{sub 4}(VO){sub 2}]{sup 4-} connected by [Co(phen){sub 2}]{sup 2+} cations. Discrete bicapped Keggin anions [PMo{sub 12}O{sub 4}(VO){sub 2}] linked to two [Co(phen){sub 2}(OH)]{sup +} cations are located between the layers.« less