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Title: Millimeter wave detection via Autler-Townes splitting in rubidium Rydberg atoms

Abstract

In this paper, we demonstrate the detection of millimeter waves via Autler-Townes splitting in {sup 85}Rb Rydberg atoms. This method may provide an independent, atom-based, SI-traceable method for measuring mm-wave electric fields, which addresses a gap in current calibration techniques in the mm-wave regime. The electric-field amplitude within a rubidium vapor cell in the WR-10 wave guide band is measured for frequencies of 93.71 GHz and 104.77 GHz. Relevant aspects of Autler-Townes splitting originating from a four-level electromagnetically induced transparency scheme are discussed. We measured the E-field generated by an open-ended waveguide using this technique. Experimental results are compared to a full-wave finite element simulation.

Authors:
;  [1]; ; ; ; ;  [2]
  1. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Electromagnetics Division, U.S. Department of Commerce, Boulder Laboratories, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States)
  2. Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22311113
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Applied Physics Letters; Journal Volume: 105; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: (c) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; AMPLITUDES; ATOMS; CALIBRATION; CURRENTS; DETECTION; ELECTRIC FIELDS; FINITE ELEMENT METHOD; GHZ RANGE; OPACITY; RADIATION DETECTORS; RUBIDIUM 85; RYDBERG STATES; SIMULATION

Citation Formats

Gordon, Joshua A., E-mail: josh.gordon@nist.gov, Holloway, Christopher L., Schwarzkopf, Andrew, Anderson, Dave A., Miller, Stephanie, Thaicharoen, Nithiwadee, and Raithel, Georg. Millimeter wave detection via Autler-Townes splitting in rubidium Rydberg atoms. United States: N. p., 2014. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4890094.
Gordon, Joshua A., E-mail: josh.gordon@nist.gov, Holloway, Christopher L., Schwarzkopf, Andrew, Anderson, Dave A., Miller, Stephanie, Thaicharoen, Nithiwadee, & Raithel, Georg. Millimeter wave detection via Autler-Townes splitting in rubidium Rydberg atoms. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4890094.
Gordon, Joshua A., E-mail: josh.gordon@nist.gov, Holloway, Christopher L., Schwarzkopf, Andrew, Anderson, Dave A., Miller, Stephanie, Thaicharoen, Nithiwadee, and Raithel, Georg. Mon . "Millimeter wave detection via Autler-Townes splitting in rubidium Rydberg atoms". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4890094.
@article{osti_22311113,
title = {Millimeter wave detection via Autler-Townes splitting in rubidium Rydberg atoms},
author = {Gordon, Joshua A., E-mail: josh.gordon@nist.gov and Holloway, Christopher L. and Schwarzkopf, Andrew and Anderson, Dave A. and Miller, Stephanie and Thaicharoen, Nithiwadee and Raithel, Georg},
abstractNote = {In this paper, we demonstrate the detection of millimeter waves via Autler-Townes splitting in {sup 85}Rb Rydberg atoms. This method may provide an independent, atom-based, SI-traceable method for measuring mm-wave electric fields, which addresses a gap in current calibration techniques in the mm-wave regime. The electric-field amplitude within a rubidium vapor cell in the WR-10 wave guide band is measured for frequencies of 93.71 GHz and 104.77 GHz. Relevant aspects of Autler-Townes splitting originating from a four-level electromagnetically induced transparency scheme are discussed. We measured the E-field generated by an open-ended waveguide using this technique. Experimental results are compared to a full-wave finite element simulation.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4890094},
journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
number = 2,
volume = 105,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jul 14 00:00:00 EDT 2014},
month = {Mon Jul 14 00:00:00 EDT 2014}
}
  • We present a technique for measuring radio-frequency (RF) electric field strengths with sub-wavelength resolution. We use Rydberg states of rubidium atoms to probe the RF field. The RF field causes an energy splitting of the Rydberg states via the Autler-Townes effect, and we detect the splitting via electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). We use this technique to measure the electric field distribution inside a glass cylinder with applied RF fields at 17.04 GHz and 104.77 GHz. We achieve a spatial resolution of ≈100 μm, limited by the widths of the laser beams utilized for the EIT spectroscopy. We numerically simulate the fields in themore » glass cylinder and find good agreement with the measured fields. Our results suggest that this technique could be applied to image fields on a small spatial scale over a large range of frequencies, up into the sub-terahertz regime.« less
  • In this work, we demonstrate an approach for improved sensitivity in weak radio frequency (RF) electric-field strength measurements using Rydberg electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in an atomic vapor. This is accomplished by varying the RF frequency around a resonant atomic transition and extrapolating the weak on-resonant field strength from the resulting off-resonant Autler-Townes (AT) splittings. This measurement remains directly traceable to SI compared to previous techniques, precluding any knowledge of experimental parameters such as optical beam powers as is the case when using the curvature of the EIT line shape to measure weak fields. We use this approach to measuremore » weak RF fields at 182 GHz and 208 GHz demonstrating improvement greater than a factor of 2 in the measurement sensitivity compared to on-resonant AT splitting RF electric field measurements.« less
  • The effects of Doppler broadening on Autler-Townes (AT) splitting in six-wave mixing (SWM) are investigated by the dressed-state model. We analyze the velocities at which the atoms are in resonance with the dressed states through Doppler frequency shifting and find that, depending on the wave-number ratio, there may be two resonant velocities which can originate from resonance with one of the dressed states or from resonance with two different dressed states. Based on this model, we discuss a novel type of AT doublet in the SWM spectrum, where macroscopic effects play an important role. Specifically, the existence of resonant peaksmore » requires polarization interference between atoms of different velocities in addition to a change in the number of resonant atoms involved. Our model can also be employed to analyze electromagnetically induced transparency resonance and other types of Doppler-free high-resolution AT spectroscopy.« less
  • Photoelectron energy spectra resulting from two-photon ionization of calcium atoms by 180 fs pulses have been studied as a function of wavelength (380--405 nm) and intensity (9{minus}900GW/cm{sup 2}). When the wavelength is tuned near the 4{ital s}{r_arrow}4{ital p} or 4{ital s}{r_arrow}5{ital s} {ital ionic} core transition, the photoelectron peaks display a characteristic splitting proportional to the field strength and assignable to a two-electron continuum-continuum Autler-Townes effect. Spectra obtained by an essential-state model involving three coupled continua are compared to the experiment.
  • A Comment on the Letter by Barry Walker, {ital et} {ital al}., Phys.Rev.Lett.{bold 75}, 633 (1995). The authors of the Letter offer a Reply. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}