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Title: Band gap engineering for graphene by using Na{sup +} ions

Abstract

Despite the noble electronic properties of graphene, its industrial application has been hindered mainly by the absence of a stable means of producing a band gap at the Dirac point (DP). We report a new route to open a band gap (E{sub g}) at DP in a controlled way by depositing positively charged Na{sup +} ions on single layer graphene formed on 6H-SiC(0001) surface. The doping of low energy Na{sup +} ions is found to deplete the π* band of graphene above the DP, and simultaneously shift the DP downward away from Fermi energy indicating the opening of E{sub g}. The band gap increases with increasing Na{sup +} coverage with a maximum E{sub g}≥0.70 eV. Our core-level data, C 1s, Na 2p, and Si 2p, consistently suggest that Na{sup +} ions do not intercalate through graphene, but produce a significant charge asymmetry among the carbon atoms of graphene to cause the opening of a band gap. We thus provide a reliable way of producing and tuning the band gap of graphene by using Na{sup +} ions, which may play a vital role in utilizing graphene in future nano-electronic devices.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. Department of Physics, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22310942
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Applied Physics Letters; Journal Volume: 105; Journal Issue: 8; Other Information: (c) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; ASYMMETRY; ATOMS; CLATHRATES; ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT; ENERGY GAP; GRAPHENE; NANOELECTRONICS; NANOSTRUCTURES; SILICON CARBIDES; SODIUM IONS; SURFACES

Citation Formats

Sung, S. J., Lee, P. R., Kim, J. G., Ryu, M. T., Park, H. M., and Chung, J. W., E-mail: jwc@postech.ac.kr. Band gap engineering for graphene by using Na{sup +} ions. United States: N. p., 2014. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4893993.
Sung, S. J., Lee, P. R., Kim, J. G., Ryu, M. T., Park, H. M., & Chung, J. W., E-mail: jwc@postech.ac.kr. Band gap engineering for graphene by using Na{sup +} ions. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4893993.
Sung, S. J., Lee, P. R., Kim, J. G., Ryu, M. T., Park, H. M., and Chung, J. W., E-mail: jwc@postech.ac.kr. Mon . "Band gap engineering for graphene by using Na{sup +} ions". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4893993.
@article{osti_22310942,
title = {Band gap engineering for graphene by using Na{sup +} ions},
author = {Sung, S. J. and Lee, P. R. and Kim, J. G. and Ryu, M. T. and Park, H. M. and Chung, J. W., E-mail: jwc@postech.ac.kr},
abstractNote = {Despite the noble electronic properties of graphene, its industrial application has been hindered mainly by the absence of a stable means of producing a band gap at the Dirac point (DP). We report a new route to open a band gap (E{sub g}) at DP in a controlled way by depositing positively charged Na{sup +} ions on single layer graphene formed on 6H-SiC(0001) surface. The doping of low energy Na{sup +} ions is found to deplete the π* band of graphene above the DP, and simultaneously shift the DP downward away from Fermi energy indicating the opening of E{sub g}. The band gap increases with increasing Na{sup +} coverage with a maximum E{sub g}≥0.70 eV. Our core-level data, C 1s, Na 2p, and Si 2p, consistently suggest that Na{sup +} ions do not intercalate through graphene, but produce a significant charge asymmetry among the carbon atoms of graphene to cause the opening of a band gap. We thus provide a reliable way of producing and tuning the band gap of graphene by using Na{sup +} ions, which may play a vital role in utilizing graphene in future nano-electronic devices.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4893993},
journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
number = 8,
volume = 105,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Aug 25 00:00:00 EDT 2014},
month = {Mon Aug 25 00:00:00 EDT 2014}
}