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Title: Improved signal to noise ratio and sensitivity of an infrared imaging video bolometer on large helical device by using an infrared periscope

Abstract

An Infrared imaging Video Bolometer (IRVB) diagnostic is currently being used in the Large Helical Device (LHD) for studying the localization of radiation structures near the magnetic island and helical divertor X-points during plasma detachment and for 3D tomography. This research demands high signal to noise ratio (SNR) and sensitivity to improve the temporal resolution for studying the evolution of radiation structures during plasma detachment and a wide IRVB field of view (FoV) for tomography. Introduction of an infrared periscope allows achievement of a higher SNR and higher sensitivity, which in turn, permits a twofold improvement in the temporal resolution of the diagnostic. Higher SNR along with wide FoV is achieved simultaneously by reducing the separation of the IRVB detector (metal foil) from the bolometer's aperture and the LHD plasma. Altering the distances to meet the aforesaid requirements results in an increased separation between the foil and the IR camera. This leads to a degradation of the diagnostic performance in terms of its sensitivity by 1.5-fold. Using an infrared periscope to image the IRVB foil results in a 7.5-fold increase in the number of IR camera pixels imaging the foil. This improves the IRVB sensitivity which depends on the squaremore » root of the number of IR camera pixels being averaged per bolometer channel. Despite the slower f-number (f/# = 1.35) and reduced transmission (τ{sub 0} = 89%, due to an increased number of lens elements) for the periscope, the diagnostic with an infrared periscope operational on LHD has improved in terms of sensitivity and SNR by a factor of 1.4 and 4.5, respectively, as compared to the original diagnostic without a periscope (i.e., IRVB foil being directly imaged by the IR camera through conventional optics). The bolometer's field of view has also increased by two times. The paper discusses these improvements in apt details.« less

Authors:
;  [1]; ;  [2]; ;  [3]
  1. High Temperature Plasma Physics Research Division, The Graduate University of Advanced Studies, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)
  2. National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)
  3. GENESIA Corporation, 3-38-4-601 Shimo-Renjaku, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0013 (Japan)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22308958
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Review of Scientific Instruments; Journal Volume: 85; Journal Issue: 7; Other Information: (c) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; BOLOMETERS; CAMERAS; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; DIVERTORS; INFRARED SPECTRA; LENSES; LHD DEVICE; MAGNETIC ISLANDS; PERISCOPES; PLASMA; RESOLUTION; SENSITIVITY; SIGNAL-TO-NOISE RATIO; TOMOGRAPHY

Citation Formats

Pandya, Shwetang N., E-mail: pandya.shwetang@LHD.nifs.ac.jp, Sano, Ryuichi, Peterson, Byron J., Mukai, Kiyofumi, Enokuchi, Akito, and Takeyama, Norihide. Improved signal to noise ratio and sensitivity of an infrared imaging video bolometer on large helical device by using an infrared periscope. United States: N. p., 2014. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4891317.
Pandya, Shwetang N., E-mail: pandya.shwetang@LHD.nifs.ac.jp, Sano, Ryuichi, Peterson, Byron J., Mukai, Kiyofumi, Enokuchi, Akito, & Takeyama, Norihide. Improved signal to noise ratio and sensitivity of an infrared imaging video bolometer on large helical device by using an infrared periscope. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4891317.
Pandya, Shwetang N., E-mail: pandya.shwetang@LHD.nifs.ac.jp, Sano, Ryuichi, Peterson, Byron J., Mukai, Kiyofumi, Enokuchi, Akito, and Takeyama, Norihide. Tue . "Improved signal to noise ratio and sensitivity of an infrared imaging video bolometer on large helical device by using an infrared periscope". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4891317.
@article{osti_22308958,
title = {Improved signal to noise ratio and sensitivity of an infrared imaging video bolometer on large helical device by using an infrared periscope},
author = {Pandya, Shwetang N., E-mail: pandya.shwetang@LHD.nifs.ac.jp and Sano, Ryuichi and Peterson, Byron J. and Mukai, Kiyofumi and Enokuchi, Akito and Takeyama, Norihide},
abstractNote = {An Infrared imaging Video Bolometer (IRVB) diagnostic is currently being used in the Large Helical Device (LHD) for studying the localization of radiation structures near the magnetic island and helical divertor X-points during plasma detachment and for 3D tomography. This research demands high signal to noise ratio (SNR) and sensitivity to improve the temporal resolution for studying the evolution of radiation structures during plasma detachment and a wide IRVB field of view (FoV) for tomography. Introduction of an infrared periscope allows achievement of a higher SNR and higher sensitivity, which in turn, permits a twofold improvement in the temporal resolution of the diagnostic. Higher SNR along with wide FoV is achieved simultaneously by reducing the separation of the IRVB detector (metal foil) from the bolometer's aperture and the LHD plasma. Altering the distances to meet the aforesaid requirements results in an increased separation between the foil and the IR camera. This leads to a degradation of the diagnostic performance in terms of its sensitivity by 1.5-fold. Using an infrared periscope to image the IRVB foil results in a 7.5-fold increase in the number of IR camera pixels imaging the foil. This improves the IRVB sensitivity which depends on the square root of the number of IR camera pixels being averaged per bolometer channel. Despite the slower f-number (f/# = 1.35) and reduced transmission (τ{sub 0} = 89%, due to an increased number of lens elements) for the periscope, the diagnostic with an infrared periscope operational on LHD has improved in terms of sensitivity and SNR by a factor of 1.4 and 4.5, respectively, as compared to the original diagnostic without a periscope (i.e., IRVB foil being directly imaged by the IR camera through conventional optics). The bolometer's field of view has also increased by two times. The paper discusses these improvements in apt details.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4891317},
journal = {Review of Scientific Instruments},
number = 7,
volume = 85,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Jul 15 00:00:00 EDT 2014},
month = {Tue Jul 15 00:00:00 EDT 2014}
}
  • The InfraRed imaging Video Bolometer (IRVB) is a powerful diagnostic to measure multi-dimensional radiation profiles in plasma fusion devices. In the Large Helical Device (LHD), four IRVBs have been installed with different fields of view to reconstruct three-dimensional profiles using a tomography technique. For the application of the measurement to plasma experiments using deuterium gas in LHD in the near future, the long-term effect of the neutron irradiation on the heat characteristics of an IRVB foil should be taken into account by regular in situ calibration measurements. Therefore, in this study, an in situ calibration system was designed.
  • A three-dimensional (3D) tomography system using four InfraRed imaging Video Bolometers (IRVBs) has been designed with a helical periodicity assumption for the purpose of plasma radiation measurement in the large helical device. For the spatial inversion of large sized arrays, the system has been numerically and experimentally examined using the Tikhonov regularization with the criterion of minimum generalized cross validation, which is the standard solver of inverse problems. The 3D transport code EMC3-EIRENE for impurity behavior and related radiation has been used to produce phantoms for numerical tests, and the relative calibration of the IRVB images has been carried outmore » with a simple function model of the decaying plasma in a radiation collapse. The tomography system can respond to temporal changes in the plasma profile and identify the 3D dynamic behavior of radiation, such as the radiation enhancement that starts from the inboard side of the torus, during the radiation collapse. The reconstruction results are also consistent with the output signals of a resistive bolometer. These results indicate that the designed 3D tomography system is available for the 3D imaging of radiation. The first 3D direct tomographic measurement of a magnetically confined plasma has been achieved.« less
  • A thin metal foil is used as a broad band radiation absorber for the InfraRed imaging Video Bolometer (IRVB), which is a vital diagnostic for studying three-dimensional radiation structures from high temperature plasmas in the Large Helical Device. The two-dimensional (2D) heat diffusion equation of the foil needs to be solved numerically to estimate the radiation falling on the foil through a pinhole geometry. The thermal, physical, and optical properties of the metal foil are among the inputs to the code besides the spatiotemporal variation of temperature, for reliable estimation of the exhaust power from the plasma illuminating the foil.more » The foil being very thin and of considerable size, non-uniformities in these properties need to be determined by suitable calibration procedures. The graphite spray used for increasing the surface emissivity also contributes to a change in the thermal properties. This paper discusses the application of the thermographic technique for determining the spatial variation of the effective in-plane thermal diffusivity of the thin metal foil and graphite composite. The paper also discusses the advantages of this technique in the light of limitations and drawbacks presented by other calibration techniques being practiced currently. The technique is initially applied to a material of known thickness and thermal properties for validation and finally to thin foils of gold and platinum both with two different thicknesses. It is observed that the effect of the graphite layer on the estimation of the thermal diffusivity becomes more pronounced for thinner foils and the measured values are approximately 2.5–3 times lower than the literature values. It is also observed that the percentage reduction in thermal diffusivity due to the coating is lower for high thermal diffusivity materials such as gold. This fact may also explain, albeit partially, the higher sensitivity of the platinum foil as compared to gold.« less
  • The InfraRed imaging Video Bolometer (IRVB) is a useful diagnostic for the multi-dimensional measurement of plasma radiation profiles. For the application of IRVB measurement to the neutron environment in fusion plasma devices such as the Large Helical Device (LHD), in situ calibration of the thermal characteristics of the foil detector is required. Laser irradiation tests of sample foils show that the reproducibility and uniformity of the carbon coating for the foil were improved using a vacuum evaporation method. Also, the principle of the in situ calibration system was justified.
  • We describe a radical design for a bolometer system employing infrared (IR) imaging of a segmented-matrix absorber in a cooled-pinhole camera geometry, which we will prototype and demonstrate on the large helical device (LHD).1 LHD will be operational in early 1998, with an l=2 superconducting winding, a major radius of 3.9 m, a minor radius of 0.5{endash}0.65 m, and input powers ranging from 3 MW (steady state) to 30 MW (pulsed). The bolometer design parameters are determined by modeling the temperature of the foils making up the detection matrix using a two-dimensional time-dependent solution of the heat conduction equation. Thismore » design will give a steady-state bolometry capability, with modest (60 Hz) time resolution, while simultaneously providing hundreds of channels of spatial information. No wiring harnesses will be required, as the temperature-rise data is measured via a 12-bit, {plus_minus}0.025{degree}C resolution, 3{endash}5 {mu}m band, 256{times}256 pixel IR camera. The spatial data will be used to tomographically invert the profile of the highly shaped stellarator main plasma and divertor radiation, in conjunction with more conventional fanned arrays of traditional bolometers.« less