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Title: Scandium induced structural transformation and B′:B″ cationic ordering in Pb(Fe{sub 0.5}Nb{sub 0.5})O{sub 3} multiferroic ceramics

Abstract

The current study explores non-magnetic Sc{sup 3+} induced structural transformation, evolution of local B-site cation ordering and associated effect on ferroelectric phase transition temperature T{sub max} (temperature corresponding to dielectric maxima) on increasing the atom percent of Sc substitution in [Pb(Fe{sub 0.5}Nb{sub 0.5})O{sub 3} (PFN)] ceramics. In this regard, the phase pure Pb[(Fe{sub 0.5−x}Sc{sub x})Nb{sub 0.5}]O{sub 3} ceramics with x varying from 0 to 0.5 were synthesized through solid state reaction route. The detailed structural analysis through Rietveld refinement confirms the room temperature transformation from a monoclinic Cm to rhombohedral R3m structure at x = 0.3 mol. % of Sc. Absorption spectra studies show that there is a considerable increment in the bandgap at higher scandium content. Most interestingly, the T{sub max} exhibited an increment for lower scandium contents (x = 0.1 to 0.25) followed by a drop in T{sub max} (x = 0.3 to 0.5). Such anomalous behavior in T{sub max} is expected to arise due to the onset of B′, B″ local cation ordering beyond Sc content x = 0.25. The B-site cation ordering at and beyond x = 0.3 was also confirmed by the evolution of cation order induced Pb-O coupled vibrational mode in Raman scattering studies. In addition, the Mössbauer spectra of PFN (x = 0) and Pb(Fe{sub 0.4}Sc{sub 0.1}Nb{submore » 0.5})O{sub 3} (x = 0.1) are reported to verify the spin state and oxidation state of iron. The lattice distortion due to the radius ratio difference between a Sc{sup 3+} cation and Fe{sup 3+} cation in low spin state is responsible for the structural transformation, which in turn facilitates a B′:B″ cation ordering.« less

Authors:
;  [1];  [2]
  1. Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad, Ordnance Factory Estate, Yeddumailaram 502205 (India)
  2. Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad 500058 (India)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22308916
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Applied Physics; Journal Volume: 116; Journal Issue: 3; Other Information: (c) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; ABSORPTION SPECTRA; CERAMICS; CRYSTAL STRUCTURE; FERRITES; FERROELECTRIC MATERIALS; IRON IONS; LEAD COMPOUNDS; MONOCLINIC LATTICES; NIOBATES; PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS; RAMAN EFFECT; SCANDIUM ADDITIONS; SCANDIUM IONS; SPIN; TEMPERATURE RANGE 0273-0400 K; TRANSFORMATIONS; TRANSITION TEMPERATURE; TRIGONAL LATTICES

Citation Formats

Mallesham, B., Ranjith, R., E-mail: ranjith@iith.ac.in, and Manivelraja, M. Scandium induced structural transformation and B′:B″ cationic ordering in Pb(Fe{sub 0.5}Nb{sub 0.5})O{sub 3} multiferroic ceramics. United States: N. p., 2014. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4890020.
Mallesham, B., Ranjith, R., E-mail: ranjith@iith.ac.in, & Manivelraja, M. Scandium induced structural transformation and B′:B″ cationic ordering in Pb(Fe{sub 0.5}Nb{sub 0.5})O{sub 3} multiferroic ceramics. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4890020.
Mallesham, B., Ranjith, R., E-mail: ranjith@iith.ac.in, and Manivelraja, M. Mon . "Scandium induced structural transformation and B′:B″ cationic ordering in Pb(Fe{sub 0.5}Nb{sub 0.5})O{sub 3} multiferroic ceramics". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4890020.
@article{osti_22308916,
title = {Scandium induced structural transformation and B′:B″ cationic ordering in Pb(Fe{sub 0.5}Nb{sub 0.5})O{sub 3} multiferroic ceramics},
author = {Mallesham, B. and Ranjith, R., E-mail: ranjith@iith.ac.in and Manivelraja, M.},
abstractNote = {The current study explores non-magnetic Sc{sup 3+} induced structural transformation, evolution of local B-site cation ordering and associated effect on ferroelectric phase transition temperature T{sub max} (temperature corresponding to dielectric maxima) on increasing the atom percent of Sc substitution in [Pb(Fe{sub 0.5}Nb{sub 0.5})O{sub 3} (PFN)] ceramics. In this regard, the phase pure Pb[(Fe{sub 0.5−x}Sc{sub x})Nb{sub 0.5}]O{sub 3} ceramics with x varying from 0 to 0.5 were synthesized through solid state reaction route. The detailed structural analysis through Rietveld refinement confirms the room temperature transformation from a monoclinic Cm to rhombohedral R3m structure at x = 0.3 mol. % of Sc. Absorption spectra studies show that there is a considerable increment in the bandgap at higher scandium content. Most interestingly, the T{sub max} exhibited an increment for lower scandium contents (x = 0.1 to 0.25) followed by a drop in T{sub max} (x = 0.3 to 0.5). Such anomalous behavior in T{sub max} is expected to arise due to the onset of B′, B″ local cation ordering beyond Sc content x = 0.25. The B-site cation ordering at and beyond x = 0.3 was also confirmed by the evolution of cation order induced Pb-O coupled vibrational mode in Raman scattering studies. In addition, the Mössbauer spectra of PFN (x = 0) and Pb(Fe{sub 0.4}Sc{sub 0.1}Nb{sub 0.5})O{sub 3} (x = 0.1) are reported to verify the spin state and oxidation state of iron. The lattice distortion due to the radius ratio difference between a Sc{sup 3+} cation and Fe{sup 3+} cation in low spin state is responsible for the structural transformation, which in turn facilitates a B′:B″ cation ordering.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4890020},
journal = {Journal of Applied Physics},
number = 3,
volume = 116,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jul 21 00:00:00 EDT 2014},
month = {Mon Jul 21 00:00:00 EDT 2014}
}
  • Pb(Fe{sub 0.5-x}Sc{sub x}Nb{sub 0.5})O{sub 3} [(PFSN) (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5)] multiferroic relaxors were synthesized and the temperature dependence of phonon modes across ferroelectric to paraelectric transition was studied. With varying Sc content from x = 0 to 0.25 the structure remains monoclinic and with further addition (x = 0.3 - 0.5) the structure transforms into rhombohedral symmetry. Structural refinement studies showed that the change in crystal structure from monoclinic to rhombohedral symmetry involves a volume increment of 34-36%. Associated changes in the tolerance factor (1.024 ≤ t ≤ 0.976) and bond angles were observed. Structure assisted B′-B″ cation orderingmore » was confirmed through the superlattice reflections in selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern of Pb(Sc{sub 0.5}Nb{sub 0.5})O{sub 3} (x = 0.5). Cation ordering is also evident from the evolution of Pb-O phonon mode in Raman spectra of compositions with rhombohedral symmetry (x ≥ 0.3). The high temperature Raman scattering studies show that the B-localized mode [F{sub 1u}, ∼250 cm{sup −1}] and BO{sub 6} octahedral rotational mode [F{sub 1g}, ∼200 cm{sup −1}], both originating from polar nano regions (PNRs) behave like coupled phonon modes in rhombohedral symmetry. However, in monoclinic symmetry they behave independently across the transition. Softening of B localized mode across the transition followed by the hardening for all compositions confirms the diffusive nature of the ferroelectric transformation. The presence of correlation between the B localized and BO{sub 6} rotational modes introduces a weak relaxor feature for systems with rhombohedral symmetry in PFSN ceramics, which was confirmed from the macroscopic dielectric studies.« less
  • Multifunctional multiferroic materials such as the single phase compound Pb(Fe{sub 0.5}Nb{sub 0.5})O{sub 3} (PFN), where ferroelectric and antiferromagnetic order coexist, are very promising and have great interest from the academic and technological points of view. In this work, coupling of the ferroelectric and magnetic moments is reported. For this study, a combination of the small signal response using the impedance spectroscopy technique and the electromechanical resonance method with the large signal response through standard ferroelectric hysteresis measurement, has been used with and without an applied magnetic field. The measurements to determine the electrical properties of the ceramic were performed asmore » functions of the bias and poling electric fields. A simultaneous analysis of the complex dielectric constant {epsilon}-tilde, impedance Z-tilde, electric modulus M-tilde, admittance Y-tilde, and the electromechanical parameters and coupling factors is presented. The results are correlated with a previous study of structural, morphological, small signal dielectric frequency-temperature response, and the ferroelectric hysteretic, magnetic and magnetodielectric behaviors. The observed shifts of the resonance and antiresonance frequency values can be associated with change of the ferroelectric domain size favored by the readjustment of the oxygen octahedron when the magnetic field is applied. From P-E hysteresis loops obtained without and with an external applied magnetic field, a dc magnetoelectric coupling effect with maximum value of 4 kV/cm T (400 mV/cm Oe) was obtained.« less
  • We report the crystal structure, magnetic, ferroelectric, dielectric, and magneto-dielectric properties of [Pb(Fe{sub 0.5}Nb{sub 0.5})O{sub 3}]{sub (1−x)}[Co{sub 0.65}Zn{sub 0.35}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}]{sub x}: (x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4) composites. Rietveld refinement results of X-ray diffraction patterns confirm the formation of these composites for all x values. All the composites show well-saturated ferroelectric and ferromagnetic hysteresis (multiferroic-composite behavior) at room temperature. With increase in Co{sub 0.65}Zn{sub 0.35}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (CZFO) content an increase in saturation magnetization, and decrease in saturation polarization, remanent polarization, and dielectric constant are observed. The ferroelectric phase transition temperature increases with increase in CZFO content. All of themore » compositions undergo second-order ferroelectric phase transitions, which can be explained by Landau-Devonshire theory. The recoverable energy density (∼0.20 to 0.04 J/cm{sup 3}) and charge-curve energy density (∼0.84 to 0.11 J/cm{sup 3}) decrease with increase in the CZFO content. The room-temperature magneto-dielectric measurements provide direct evidence of magneto-electric coupling via strain at room temperature.« less
  • The vibrational and structural properties of Pb(Fe 0.5Nb 0.5)O 3 have been investigated using Raman spectroscopy up to 40 GPa at 300 K and from 300 to 415 K at selected pressures. The measurements reveal three phase transitions at 5.5, 8.7 and 24 GPa at room temperature. The temperature dependences of the spectra indicated transitions at 1.5 GPa, at 335 and 365 K. The results support the appearance of an intermediate tetragonal P4mm phase between ferroelectric R3m and paraelectric Pm-3m phases. Furthermore, a P-T phase diagram is proposed that allows further insight into the magnetoelectric coupling present in this material.
  • CaTi{sub 1-x}(Fe{sub 0.5}Nb{sub 0.5}) {sub x}O{sub 3} (0 {<=} x {<=} 1) dielectrics were synthesized via the solid state reaction route and structure analysis was performed together with the dielectric characterization. The substitution of Ti{sup 4+} by Fe{sup 3+}/Nb{sup 5+} and developed phase were studied by X-ray diffraction. The dielectric constant and temperature coefficient of resonant frequency decrease rapidly with an increase of x. The influence of 1-5 wt.% B{sub 2}O{sub 3} as a sintering additive investigated at CaTi{sub 0.5}(Fe{sub 0.5}Nb{sub 0.5}){sub 0.5}O{sub 3} solid solutions. The dielectric properties were found to strongly depend on the sintering conditions and contentsmore » of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} additions. {epsilon} {sub r} = 52.3, Q x f {sub o} = 2930 GHz and T {sub f} = 13 ppm/deg. C were obtained for CaTi{sub 0.5}(Fe{sub 0.5}Nb{sub 0.5}){sub 0.5}O{sub 3} specimen 3 wt.% B{sub 2}O{sub 3} sintered at 900 deg. C for 2 h.« less