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Title: Integrating atomic layer deposition and ultra-high vacuum physical vapor deposition for in situ fabrication of tunnel junctions

Abstract

Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) is a promising technique for growing ultrathin, pristine dielectrics on metal substrates, which is essential to many electronic devices. Tunnel junctions are an excellent example which require a leak-free, ultrathin dielectric tunnel barrier of typical thickness around 1 nm between two metal electrodes. A challenge in the development of ultrathin dielectric tunnel barriers using ALD is controlling the nucleation of dielectrics on metals with minimal formation of native oxides at the metal surface for high-quality interfaces between the tunnel barrier and metal electrodes. This poses a critical need for integrating ALD with ultra-high vacuum (UHV) physical vapor deposition. In order to address these challenges, a viscous-flow ALD chamber was designed and interfaced to an UHV magnetron sputtering chamber via a load lock. A sample transportation system was implemented for in situ sample transfer between the ALD, load lock, and sputtering chambers. Using this integrated ALD-UHV sputtering system, superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) Nb-Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Nb Josephson tunnel junctions were fabricated with tunnel barriers of thickness varied from sub-nm to ∼1 nm. The suitability of using an Al wetting layer for initiation of the ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} tunnel barrier was investigated with ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy, and electrical transportmore » measurements. With optimized processing conditions, leak-free SIS tunnel junctions were obtained, demonstrating the viability of this integrated ALD-UHV sputtering system for the fabrication of tunnel junctions and devices comprised of metal-dielectric-metal multilayers.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ;  [1]; ;  [2]
  1. Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045 (United States)
  2. Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22308683
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Review of Scientific Instruments; Journal Volume: 85; Journal Issue: 7; Other Information: (c) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; ALUMINIUM OXIDES; ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY; DIELECTRIC MATERIALS; ELECTRODES; ELLIPSOMETRY; JOSEPHSON JUNCTIONS; MAGNETRONS; METALS; NUCLEATION; PHYSICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION; PRESSURE RANGE MICRO PA; SPUTTERING; SUPERCONDUCTORS; TUNNEL EFFECT; VISCOUS FLOW

Citation Formats

Elliot, Alan J., E-mail: alane@ku.edu, E-mail: jwu@ku.edu, Malek, Gary A., Lu, Rongtao, Han, Siyuan, Wu, Judy Z., E-mail: alane@ku.edu, E-mail: jwu@ku.edu, Yu, Haifeng, and Zhao, Shiping. Integrating atomic layer deposition and ultra-high vacuum physical vapor deposition for in situ fabrication of tunnel junctions. United States: N. p., 2014. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4890286.
Elliot, Alan J., E-mail: alane@ku.edu, E-mail: jwu@ku.edu, Malek, Gary A., Lu, Rongtao, Han, Siyuan, Wu, Judy Z., E-mail: alane@ku.edu, E-mail: jwu@ku.edu, Yu, Haifeng, & Zhao, Shiping. Integrating atomic layer deposition and ultra-high vacuum physical vapor deposition for in situ fabrication of tunnel junctions. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4890286.
Elliot, Alan J., E-mail: alane@ku.edu, E-mail: jwu@ku.edu, Malek, Gary A., Lu, Rongtao, Han, Siyuan, Wu, Judy Z., E-mail: alane@ku.edu, E-mail: jwu@ku.edu, Yu, Haifeng, and Zhao, Shiping. Tue . "Integrating atomic layer deposition and ultra-high vacuum physical vapor deposition for in situ fabrication of tunnel junctions". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4890286.
@article{osti_22308683,
title = {Integrating atomic layer deposition and ultra-high vacuum physical vapor deposition for in situ fabrication of tunnel junctions},
author = {Elliot, Alan J., E-mail: alane@ku.edu, E-mail: jwu@ku.edu and Malek, Gary A. and Lu, Rongtao and Han, Siyuan and Wu, Judy Z., E-mail: alane@ku.edu, E-mail: jwu@ku.edu and Yu, Haifeng and Zhao, Shiping},
abstractNote = {Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) is a promising technique for growing ultrathin, pristine dielectrics on metal substrates, which is essential to many electronic devices. Tunnel junctions are an excellent example which require a leak-free, ultrathin dielectric tunnel barrier of typical thickness around 1 nm between two metal electrodes. A challenge in the development of ultrathin dielectric tunnel barriers using ALD is controlling the nucleation of dielectrics on metals with minimal formation of native oxides at the metal surface for high-quality interfaces between the tunnel barrier and metal electrodes. This poses a critical need for integrating ALD with ultra-high vacuum (UHV) physical vapor deposition. In order to address these challenges, a viscous-flow ALD chamber was designed and interfaced to an UHV magnetron sputtering chamber via a load lock. A sample transportation system was implemented for in situ sample transfer between the ALD, load lock, and sputtering chambers. Using this integrated ALD-UHV sputtering system, superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) Nb-Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Nb Josephson tunnel junctions were fabricated with tunnel barriers of thickness varied from sub-nm to ∼1 nm. The suitability of using an Al wetting layer for initiation of the ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} tunnel barrier was investigated with ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy, and electrical transport measurements. With optimized processing conditions, leak-free SIS tunnel junctions were obtained, demonstrating the viability of this integrated ALD-UHV sputtering system for the fabrication of tunnel junctions and devices comprised of metal-dielectric-metal multilayers.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4890286},
journal = {Review of Scientific Instruments},
number = 7,
volume = 85,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Jul 15 00:00:00 EDT 2014},
month = {Tue Jul 15 00:00:00 EDT 2014}
}