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Title: Thermoelectric infrared microsensors based on a periodically suspended thermopile integrating nanostructured Ge/SiGe quantum dots superlattice

Abstract

This paper presents an original integration of polycrystalline SiGe-based quantum dots superlattices (QDSL) into Thermoelectric (TE) planar infrared microsensors (μSIR) fabricated using a CMOS technology. The nanostructuration in QDSL results into a considerably reduced thermal conductivity by a factor up to 10 compared to the one of standard polysilicon layers that are usually used for IR sensor applications. A presentation of several TE layers, QDSL and polysilicon, is given before to describe the fabrication of the thermopile-based sensors. The theoretical values of the sensitivity to irradiance of μSIR can be predicted thanks to an analytical model. These findings are used to interpret the experimental measurements versus the nature of the TE layer exploited in the devices. The use of nanostructured QDSL as the main material in μSIR thermopile has brought a sensitivity improvement of about 28% consistent with theoretical predictions. The impact of QDSL low thermal conductivity is damped by the contribution of the thermal conductivity of all the other sub-layers that build up the device.

Authors:
; ; ; ;  [1]; ; ;  [2]
  1. IEMN, Institute of Electronics, Microelectronics and Nanotechnology, CNRS and Lille 1 University, F-59652 Villeneuve d'Ascq (France)
  2. CEA, LITEN, Thermoelectricity Laboratory, F-38054 Grenoble (France)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22308528
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Applied Physics; Journal Volume: 116; Journal Issue: 4; Other Information: (c) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; EQUIPMENT; GERMANIUM; GERMANIUM SILICIDES; INFRARED RADIATION; LAYERS; PERIODICITY; POLYCRYSTALS; QUANTUM DOTS; RADIANT FLUX DENSITY; SENSITIVITY; SENSORS; SUPERLATTICES; THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY; THERMOCOUPLES; THERMOELECTRIC PROPERTIES

Citation Formats

Ziouche, K., E-mail: katir.ziouche@iemn.univ-lille1.fr, E-mail: Zahia.bougrioua@iemn.univ-lille1.fr, Bougrioua, Z., E-mail: katir.ziouche@iemn.univ-lille1.fr, E-mail: Zahia.bougrioua@iemn.univ-lille1.fr, Lejeune, P., Lasri, T., Leclercq, D., Savelli, G., Hauser, D., and Michon, P.-M. Thermoelectric infrared microsensors based on a periodically suspended thermopile integrating nanostructured Ge/SiGe quantum dots superlattice. United States: N. p., 2014. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4891020.
Ziouche, K., E-mail: katir.ziouche@iemn.univ-lille1.fr, E-mail: Zahia.bougrioua@iemn.univ-lille1.fr, Bougrioua, Z., E-mail: katir.ziouche@iemn.univ-lille1.fr, E-mail: Zahia.bougrioua@iemn.univ-lille1.fr, Lejeune, P., Lasri, T., Leclercq, D., Savelli, G., Hauser, D., & Michon, P.-M. Thermoelectric infrared microsensors based on a periodically suspended thermopile integrating nanostructured Ge/SiGe quantum dots superlattice. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4891020.
Ziouche, K., E-mail: katir.ziouche@iemn.univ-lille1.fr, E-mail: Zahia.bougrioua@iemn.univ-lille1.fr, Bougrioua, Z., E-mail: katir.ziouche@iemn.univ-lille1.fr, E-mail: Zahia.bougrioua@iemn.univ-lille1.fr, Lejeune, P., Lasri, T., Leclercq, D., Savelli, G., Hauser, D., and Michon, P.-M. Mon . "Thermoelectric infrared microsensors based on a periodically suspended thermopile integrating nanostructured Ge/SiGe quantum dots superlattice". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4891020.
@article{osti_22308528,
title = {Thermoelectric infrared microsensors based on a periodically suspended thermopile integrating nanostructured Ge/SiGe quantum dots superlattice},
author = {Ziouche, K., E-mail: katir.ziouche@iemn.univ-lille1.fr, E-mail: Zahia.bougrioua@iemn.univ-lille1.fr and Bougrioua, Z., E-mail: katir.ziouche@iemn.univ-lille1.fr, E-mail: Zahia.bougrioua@iemn.univ-lille1.fr and Lejeune, P. and Lasri, T. and Leclercq, D. and Savelli, G. and Hauser, D. and Michon, P.-M.},
abstractNote = {This paper presents an original integration of polycrystalline SiGe-based quantum dots superlattices (QDSL) into Thermoelectric (TE) planar infrared microsensors (μSIR) fabricated using a CMOS technology. The nanostructuration in QDSL results into a considerably reduced thermal conductivity by a factor up to 10 compared to the one of standard polysilicon layers that are usually used for IR sensor applications. A presentation of several TE layers, QDSL and polysilicon, is given before to describe the fabrication of the thermopile-based sensors. The theoretical values of the sensitivity to irradiance of μSIR can be predicted thanks to an analytical model. These findings are used to interpret the experimental measurements versus the nature of the TE layer exploited in the devices. The use of nanostructured QDSL as the main material in μSIR thermopile has brought a sensitivity improvement of about 28% consistent with theoretical predictions. The impact of QDSL low thermal conductivity is damped by the contribution of the thermal conductivity of all the other sub-layers that build up the device.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4891020},
journal = {Journal of Applied Physics},
number = 4,
volume = 116,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jul 28 00:00:00 EDT 2014},
month = {Mon Jul 28 00:00:00 EDT 2014}
}
  • The energy band diagram of the multilayered Ge{sub 0.8}Si{sub 0.2}/Ge{sub 0.1}Si{sub 0.9} heterostructures with vertically correlated quantum dots is analyzed theoretically. With regard to fluctuations of the thickness layer in the columns of quantum dots and to the exciton-phonon coupling, it is shown that the electron states constitute a miniband. The hole wave functions remain localized in the quantum dots. The spectrum of optical transitions calculated for a 20-layered structure at room temperature is in good agreement with the experimental photoluminescence spectrum that involves an intense band at about 1.6 {mu}m. From theoretical considerations and experimental measurements, specific evidence formore » the miniband in the superlattice is deduced; it is found that the overlap integrals of the wave functions of electrons and holes and the integrated intensity of the photoluminescence band of the Ge quantum dots are described by quadratic functions of the number of the structure periods.« less
  • Raman spectroscopy and atomic-force microscopy were applied to study the morphology of nanoislands grown on strained Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} sublayers. It was shown that the growth of nanoislands on strained Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} sublayer not only induces the effect of their spatial ordering but also enhances the role of interdiffusion processes. Unusual high island volume increase during the epitaxy is explained by anomalous strong material diffusion from the sublayer into the islands, induced by nonuniform field of elastic strains.
  • The fabrication of regularly ordered Ge quantum dot arrays on Si surfaces usually requires extensive preparation processing, ensuring clean and atomically ordered substrates, while the ordering parameters are quite limited by the surface properties of the substrate. Here, we demonstrate a simple method for fabrication of ordered Ge quantum dots with highly tunable ordering parameters on rippled Si surfaces. The ordering is achieved by magnetron sputter deposition, followed by an annealing in high vacuum. We show that the type of ordering and lattice vector parameters of the formed Ge quantum dot lattice are determined by the crystallographic properties of themore » ripples, i.e., by their shape and orientation. Moreover, the ordering is achieved regardless the initial amorphisation of the ripples surface and the presence of a thin oxide layer.« less
  • In this work, SiGe/SiO{sub 2} multi-layer (ML) films with layer thickness in the range of a few nanometers were successfully fabricated by conventional RF-magnetron sputtering at 350 deg. C. The influence of the annealing treatment on SiGe nanocrystals (NCs) formation and crystalline properties were investigated by Raman spectroscopy and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction. At the annealing temperature of 800 deg. C, where well defined SiGe NCs were observed, a thorough structural investigation of the whole ML structure has been undertaken by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, and annular dark field scanningmore » transmission electron microscopy. Our results show that the onset of local modifications to the ML composition takes place at this temperature for annealing times of the order of a few tens of minutes with the formation of defective regions in the upper portion of the ML structure. Only the very first layers over the Si substrate appear immune to this problem. This finding has been exploited for the fabrication of a defect free metal-oxide-semiconductor structure with a well-defined single layer of SiGe NCs. A memory effect attributed to the presence of the SiGe NCs has been demonstrated by high frequency capacitance-voltage measurements.« less
  • The composition of photoluminescent films containing low-dimensional silicon and germanium is studied. Si, Ge, and Al oxide films containing Si and Ge quantum dots are produced by pulsed laser ablation. The infrared transmittance spectra in the range of wave numbers from 650 to 1400 cm{sup -1} and the time-resolved photoluminescence spectra in the energy range from 1.4 to 3.2 eV at room temperature are recorded. Correlations between the conditions of formation of the films, their photoluminescence properties, and the stretching vibrations of Si-O-Si, Ge-O-Ge, and Al-O bonds are established.