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Title: Energy level alignment at the methylammonium lead iodide/copper phthalocyanine interface

Abstract

The energy level alignment at the CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3}/copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) interface is investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). XPS reveal a 0.3 eV downward band bending in the CuPc film. UPS validate this finding and further reveal negligible interfacial dipole formation – verifying the viability of vacuum level alignment. The highest occupied molecular orbital of CuPc is found to be closer to the Fermi level than the valance band maximum of CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3}, facilitating hole transfer from CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} to CuPc. However, subsequent hole extraction from CuPc may be impeded by the downward band bending in the CuPc layer.

Authors:
; ;  [1]; ; ;  [2];  [3];  [1];  [3]
  1. Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 21 Nanyang Link, Singapore 637371 (Singapore)
  2. Energy Research Institute @NTU (ERI-N), Research Techno Plaza, X-Frontier Block, Level 5, 50 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637553 (Singapore)
  3. (Singapore)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22303737
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: APL Materials; Journal Volume: 2; Journal Issue: 8; Other Information: (c) 2014 Author(s); Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; COPPER COMPLEXES; DIPOLES; FERMI LEVEL; FILMS; LEAD IODIDES; MOLECULAR ORBITAL METHOD; PHTHALOCYANINES; X-RAY PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY

Citation Formats

Chen, Shi, Goh, Teck Wee, Sum, Tze Chien, E-mail: Alfred@ntu.edu.sg, E-mail: Tzechien@ntu.edu.sg, Sabba, Dharani, Chua, Julianto, Mathews, Nripan, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798, Huan, Cheng Hon Alfred, E-mail: Alfred@ntu.edu.sg, E-mail: Tzechien@ntu.edu.sg, and Institute of High Performance Computing, 1 Fusionopolis Way, #16–16 Connexis, Singapore 138632. Energy level alignment at the methylammonium lead iodide/copper phthalocyanine interface. United States: N. p., 2014. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4889844.
Chen, Shi, Goh, Teck Wee, Sum, Tze Chien, E-mail: Alfred@ntu.edu.sg, E-mail: Tzechien@ntu.edu.sg, Sabba, Dharani, Chua, Julianto, Mathews, Nripan, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798, Huan, Cheng Hon Alfred, E-mail: Alfred@ntu.edu.sg, E-mail: Tzechien@ntu.edu.sg, & Institute of High Performance Computing, 1 Fusionopolis Way, #16–16 Connexis, Singapore 138632. Energy level alignment at the methylammonium lead iodide/copper phthalocyanine interface. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4889844.
Chen, Shi, Goh, Teck Wee, Sum, Tze Chien, E-mail: Alfred@ntu.edu.sg, E-mail: Tzechien@ntu.edu.sg, Sabba, Dharani, Chua, Julianto, Mathews, Nripan, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798, Huan, Cheng Hon Alfred, E-mail: Alfred@ntu.edu.sg, E-mail: Tzechien@ntu.edu.sg, and Institute of High Performance Computing, 1 Fusionopolis Way, #16–16 Connexis, Singapore 138632. Fri . "Energy level alignment at the methylammonium lead iodide/copper phthalocyanine interface". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4889844.
@article{osti_22303737,
title = {Energy level alignment at the methylammonium lead iodide/copper phthalocyanine interface},
author = {Chen, Shi and Goh, Teck Wee and Sum, Tze Chien, E-mail: Alfred@ntu.edu.sg, E-mail: Tzechien@ntu.edu.sg and Sabba, Dharani and Chua, Julianto and Mathews, Nripan and School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 and Huan, Cheng Hon Alfred, E-mail: Alfred@ntu.edu.sg, E-mail: Tzechien@ntu.edu.sg and Institute of High Performance Computing, 1 Fusionopolis Way, #16–16 Connexis, Singapore 138632},
abstractNote = {The energy level alignment at the CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3}/copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) interface is investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). XPS reveal a 0.3 eV downward band bending in the CuPc film. UPS validate this finding and further reveal negligible interfacial dipole formation – verifying the viability of vacuum level alignment. The highest occupied molecular orbital of CuPc is found to be closer to the Fermi level than the valance band maximum of CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3}, facilitating hole transfer from CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} to CuPc. However, subsequent hole extraction from CuPc may be impeded by the downward band bending in the CuPc layer.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4889844},
journal = {APL Materials},
number = 8,
volume = 2,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Aug 01 00:00:00 EDT 2014},
month = {Fri Aug 01 00:00:00 EDT 2014}
}