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Title: The Physics of War: From Arrows to Atoms

Abstract

No abstract prepared.

Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22303679
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Physics Today; Journal Volume: 67; Journal Issue: 9; Other Information: (c) 2014 American Institute of Physics; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
98 NUCLEAR DISARMAMENT, SAFEGUARDS AND PHYSICAL PROTECTION; CONVENTIONAL WARFARE; NATIONAL DEFENSE; NUCLEAR WEAPONS

Citation Formats

NONE. The Physics of War: From Arrows to Atoms. United States: N. p., 2014. Web. doi:10.1063/PT.3.2520.
NONE. The Physics of War: From Arrows to Atoms. United States. doi:10.1063/PT.3.2520.
NONE. Mon . "The Physics of War: From Arrows to Atoms". United States. doi:10.1063/PT.3.2520.
@article{osti_22303679,
title = {The Physics of War: From Arrows to Atoms},
author = {NONE},
abstractNote = {No abstract prepared.},
doi = {10.1063/PT.3.2520},
journal = {Physics Today},
number = 9,
volume = 67,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Sep 01 00:00:00 EDT 2014},
month = {Mon Sep 01 00:00:00 EDT 2014}
}
  • This paper is the third in a series whose goal is to develop a fundamentally new way of viewing theories of physics. Our basic contention is that constructing a theory of physics is equivalent to finding a representation in a topos of a certain formal language that is attached to the system. In Paper II, we studied the topos representations of the propositional language PL(S) for the case of quantum theory, and in the present paper we do the same thing for the, more extensive, local language L(S). One of the main achievements is to find a topos representation formore » self-adjoint operators. This involves showing that, for any physical quantity A, there is an arrow {delta}{sup o}(A):{sigma} lowbar {yields}R{sup sccue} lowbar , where R{sup sccue} lowbar is the quantity-value object for this theory. The construction of {delta}{sup o}(A) is an extension of the daseinisation of projection operators that was discussed in Paper II. The object R{sup sccue} lowbar is a monoid object only in the topos, {tau}{sub {phi}}=Sets{sup V(H){sup op}}, of the theory, and to enhance the applicability of the formalism, we apply to R{sup sccue} lowbar a topos analog of the Grothendieck extension of a monoid to a group. The resulting object, k(R{sup sccue} lowbar ), is an abelian group object in {tau}{sub {phi}}. We also discuss another candidate, R{sup {r_reversible}} lowbar , for the quantity-value object. In this presheaf, both inner and outer daseinisations are used in a symmetric way. Finally, there is a brief discussion of the role of unitary operators in the quantum topos scheme.« less
  • We study the evolution of a neutral K meson prepared as an incoherent equal mixture of K{sup 0} and K{sup 0}. Denoting the density matrix by {rho}(t)=(1/2)N(t)[1+{zeta}-vector(t){center_dot}{sigma}-vector], the norm of the state N(t) is found to decrease monotonically from one to zero, while the magnitude of the Stokes vector |{zeta}-vector(t)| increases monotonically from zero to one. This property qualifies these observables as arrows of time. Requiring monotonic behavior of N(t) for arbitrary values of {gamma}{sub L}, {gamma}{sub S}, and {delta}m yields a bound on the CP-violating overlap {delta}=<K{sub L}|K{sub S}>, which is similar to, but weaker than, the known unitaritymore » bound. A similar requirement on |{zeta}-vector(t)| yields a new bound, {delta}{sup 2}<(1/2)(({delta}{gamma}/{delta}m))sinh((3{pi}/4)({delta}{gamma}/{delta}m)) which is particularly effective in limiting the CP-violating overlap in the B{sup 0}-B{sup 0} system. We obtain the Stokes parameter {zeta}{sub 3}(t) which shows how the average strangeness of the beam evolves from zero to {delta}. The evolution of the Stokes vector from |{zeta}-vector|=0 to |{zeta}-vector|=1 has a resemblance to an order parameter of a system undergoing spontaneous symmetry breaking.« less
  • After negotiating for 15 months, issuing three white papers, and conducting consumer research, the National Recycling Coalition (NRC, Washington, DC) and the Society of the Plastics Industry, Inc. (SPI, Washington, DC), have agreed to disagree on the use of the familiar chasing arrows logo in SPI's seven-number resin identification code. The desired end result of the talks and debates was supposed to be a plan to change legislation requiring 39 states to use SPI's current resin identification code and a commitment to remove the old code from durable goods and flexible packaging. Ultimately, these actions could have improved markets formore » polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) by reducing contamination caused by confusion over what is actually recycled versus what is merely recyclable.« less