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Title: Interaction of the high energy deuterons with the graphite target in the plasma focus devices based on Lee model

Abstract

Numerical experiments are systematically carried out using the Lee model code extended to compute the ion beams on various plasma focus devices operated with Deuterium gas. The deuteron beam properties of the plasma focus are studied for low and high energy plasma focus device. The energy spectral distribution for deuteron ions ejected from the pinch plasma is calculated and the ion numbers with energy around 1 MeV is then determined. The deuteron–graphite target interaction is studied for different conditions. The yield of the reaction {sup 12}C(d,n){sup 13}N and the induced radioactivity for one and multi shots plasma focus devices in the graphite solid target is investigated. Our results present the optimized high energy repetitive plasma focus devices as an alternative to accelerators for the production of {sup 13}N short lived radioisotopes. However, technical challenges await solutions on two fronts: (a) operation of plasma focus machines at high rep rates for a sufficient period of time (b) design of durable targets that can take the thermal load.

Authors:
; ;  [1];  [2];  [3];  [2];  [3];  [4]
  1. Department of Physics, Atomic Energy Commission, Damascus, P. O. Box 6091 (Syrian Arab Republic)
  2. INTI International University, 71800 Nilai (Malaysia)
  3. (Australia)
  4. (Malaysia)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22299825
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Physics of Plasmas; Journal Volume: 21; Journal Issue: 7; Other Information: (c) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
73 NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND RADIATION PHYSICS; 70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; CARBON 12 REACTIONS; DEUTERIUM; DEUTERON BEAMS; DEUTERONS; GRAPHITE; LEE MODEL; MEV RANGE 01-10; NITROGEN 13; PLASMA FOCUS; PLASMA FOCUS DEVICES; RADIOACTIVITY

Citation Formats

Akel, M., E-mail: pscientific2@aec.org.sy, Alsheikh Salo, S., Ismael, Sh., Saw, S. H., Institute for Plasma Focus Studies, 32 Oakpark Drive, Chadstone VIC 3148, Lee, S., Institute for Plasma Focus Studies, 32 Oakpark Drive, Chadstone VIC 3148, and Physics Department, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur. Interaction of the high energy deuterons with the graphite target in the plasma focus devices based on Lee model. United States: N. p., 2014. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4890222.
Akel, M., E-mail: pscientific2@aec.org.sy, Alsheikh Salo, S., Ismael, Sh., Saw, S. H., Institute for Plasma Focus Studies, 32 Oakpark Drive, Chadstone VIC 3148, Lee, S., Institute for Plasma Focus Studies, 32 Oakpark Drive, Chadstone VIC 3148, & Physics Department, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur. Interaction of the high energy deuterons with the graphite target in the plasma focus devices based on Lee model. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4890222.
Akel, M., E-mail: pscientific2@aec.org.sy, Alsheikh Salo, S., Ismael, Sh., Saw, S. H., Institute for Plasma Focus Studies, 32 Oakpark Drive, Chadstone VIC 3148, Lee, S., Institute for Plasma Focus Studies, 32 Oakpark Drive, Chadstone VIC 3148, and Physics Department, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur. Tue . "Interaction of the high energy deuterons with the graphite target in the plasma focus devices based on Lee model". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4890222.
@article{osti_22299825,
title = {Interaction of the high energy deuterons with the graphite target in the plasma focus devices based on Lee model},
author = {Akel, M., E-mail: pscientific2@aec.org.sy and Alsheikh Salo, S. and Ismael, Sh. and Saw, S. H. and Institute for Plasma Focus Studies, 32 Oakpark Drive, Chadstone VIC 3148 and Lee, S. and Institute for Plasma Focus Studies, 32 Oakpark Drive, Chadstone VIC 3148 and Physics Department, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur},
abstractNote = {Numerical experiments are systematically carried out using the Lee model code extended to compute the ion beams on various plasma focus devices operated with Deuterium gas. The deuteron beam properties of the plasma focus are studied for low and high energy plasma focus device. The energy spectral distribution for deuteron ions ejected from the pinch plasma is calculated and the ion numbers with energy around 1 MeV is then determined. The deuteron–graphite target interaction is studied for different conditions. The yield of the reaction {sup 12}C(d,n){sup 13}N and the induced radioactivity for one and multi shots plasma focus devices in the graphite solid target is investigated. Our results present the optimized high energy repetitive plasma focus devices as an alternative to accelerators for the production of {sup 13}N short lived radioisotopes. However, technical challenges await solutions on two fronts: (a) operation of plasma focus machines at high rep rates for a sufficient period of time (b) design of durable targets that can take the thermal load.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4890222},
journal = {Physics of Plasmas},
number = 7,
volume = 21,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Jul 15 00:00:00 EDT 2014},
month = {Tue Jul 15 00:00:00 EDT 2014}
}
  • Nuclear activation techniques have been used to measure the fluence of high-energy deuterons in a plasma-focus device. Substantial activation of carbon and aluminum targets was observed on most shots where the deuterium pressure was less than 3 Torr. Carbon activation indicates more than 10/sup 15/ deuterons above 330 keV on some high-intensity shots. These deuterons are strongly forward directed with 0/sup 0/ to 90/sup 0/ ratios exceeding 10/sup 4/ on high-yield shots. Ratios of /sup 13/N to /sup 28/Al, foil-stack activation measurements, and neutron time of flight all consistently show some deuterons have energies above 2 MeV. Measured /sup 13/N//supmore » 28/Al ratios also indicate more than 10/sup 12/ deuterons of energy greater than 5 MeV, but this result has not been verified by an independent threshold-activation measurement. These measurements illustrate that the plasma-focus device can be operated in two distinctly different modes, with low-pressure operation resulting in the acceleration of ions and electrons to many times the capacitor-bank charging voltage. Most of the neutron emission in low-pressure operation may come from beam-target reactions.« less
  • Experiments on the properties and dynamics of a relativistic electron beam formed in a plasma focus are discussed. The beam is focused in the plasma of the discharge and reaches a size r< or approx. =1mm (correspondingly, the current density is Japprox.10/sup 8/ A/cm/sup 2/, and the energy flux is q> or approx. =10/sup 12/ W/cm/sup 2/). The beam interacts effectively with the plasma ''corona'' at the anode which is formed by the intense thermal flux from the pinch plasma.
  • Three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation is used to investigate radiation-pressure driven acceleration and compression of small solid-density plasma by intense laser pulses. It is found that multiple impacts by presently available short-pulse lasers on a small hemispheric shell target can create a long-living tiny quasineutral monoenergetic plasma bunch of very high energy density.