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Title: Design of a Particle Shadow-graph Velocimetry and Size (PSVS) System to Determine Particle Size and Density Distributions in Hanford Nuclear Tank Wastes - 12280

Abstract

Accurate particle size and density distributions for nuclear tank waste materials are essential information that helps determine the engineering requirements for a host of waste management unit operations (e.g., tank mixing, pipeline transport, and filtration). The most prevalent approach for determining particle size and density distribution is highly laborious and involves identifying individual particles using scanning electron microscope/x-ray diffraction and then acquiring the density of the materials from the technical literature. Other methods simply approximate individual particle densities by assuming chemical composition, rather than obtaining actual measurements of particle density. To overcome these limitations, a Particle Shadow-graph Velocimetry and Size (PSVS) system has been designed to simultaneously obtain particle size and density distributions for a broad range of Hanford tank waste materials existing as both individual particles and agglomerates. The PSVS system uses optical hardware, a temperature-controlled settling column, and particle introduction chamber to accurately and reproducibly obtain images of settling particles. Image analysis software provides a highly accurate determination of both particle terminal velocity and equivalent spherical particle diameter. The particle density is then calculated from Newton's terminal settling theory. The PSVS system was designed to accurately image particle/agglomerate sizes between 10 and 1000 μm and particle/agglomerate densities rangingmore » from 1.4 to 11.5 g/cm{sup 3}, where the maximum terminal velocity does not exceed 10 cm/s. Preliminary testing was completed with standard materials and results were in good agreement with terminal settling theory. Recent results of this method development are presented, as well as experimental design. The primary goal of these PSVS system tests was to obtain accurate and reproducible particle size and velocity measurements to estimate particle densities within 20 percent of direct measured density values. The average percent error observed in particle densities was 4.8, 8.2, and 25.8 percent for S1D3 (high-density soda-lime glass), S3D4 (zirconia), and S1D2 (soda-lime glass) beads, respectively. The maximum measured particle density error observed was 14.5, 21.0, and 58.4, for S1D3, S3D4, and S1D2 beads, respectively. Multiple sources of error can exist that contribute to inaccurate estimates of particle density using the PSVS approach. Two significant influences observed were thermal convective currents in the settling column fluid and non-spherical (irregular) particle shapes in the standard test materials. Experimental results using buoyant beads suggest thermal convective currents can influence the movement of settling particles as much as 4 mm/s. These thermal convective currents are clearly a significant concern for smaller and less-dense particles/agglomerates which have terminal velocities of the same magnitude. Significant effort went into the design and fabrication of a thermal control system for the PSVS settling column. However, small temperature variations (<0.3 deg. C) are difficult to prevent and measure accurately. Therefore, although designing the thermal control system was necessary, it is not considered the only solution to minimize error due to thermal convective currents. The use of small diameter (10 to 27 μm) polyethylene buoyant beads (in low concentrations) during actual settling experiments may be necessary to provide insight into particle-particle interactions and fluid velocity correction factors to account for potential influences from thermal convective currents. Future testing will incorporate the buoyant beads into the analysis technique when the suspension fluid is chemically compatible. The use of the Newton's law to calculate particle/agglomerate densities assumes spherical particle shapes. As the actual particle/agglomerates diverge from spherical, the margin of error increases. The selection of high quality (in density and shape) monodispersed particle standards was a direct attempt to reduce the uncertainties associated with non-spherical or irregular particles and to only observe the PSVS method and analysis error. While investigating the source of data scatter for the S1D3 bead (nominal 700 μm) standard, significant irregular particles where discovered. Yet, a subsequent investigation into the S3D4 bead standard was also conducted and it was determined that 60 percent of the particles had a 0.9 to 0.8 centricity, 32 percent were between 0.8 and 0.7, only 7 percent were between 1.0 and 0.9, and the remaining 1 percent of the particles had centricities between 0.7 and 0.6. Contrast this with the S1D3 bead standard, where 100 percent of particles had centricities between 0.95 and 0.98, upon applying the centricity filter. The influence of the non-spherical shape of the S3D4 bead standard is evident when comparing a 3.9 percent average density error for S1D3 glass bead standard with an 8.3 percent average density error for the S3D4 bead standard. Model corrections for non-spherical shape must be implemented to account for these measurement errors during future method validation and system performance assessments. In addition, further work is needed to resolve the higher than expected velocities for the smaller S1D2 particles. Initial measurements conducted with buoyant beads as fluid velocity tracers indicate that fluid velocities can be subtracted from the increased particle velocities to determine the particle terminal velocity, regardless of the surrounding fluid velocity. However, this approach is in its infancy and will need to be carefully and methodically validated. (authors)« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
WM Symposia, 1628 E. Southern Avenue, Suite 9-332, Tempe, AZ 85282 (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
22293561
Report Number(s):
INIS-US-14-WM-12280
TRN: US14V1217115085
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: WM2012: Waste Management 2012 conference on improving the future in waste management, Phoenix, AZ (United States), 26 Feb - 1 Mar 2012; Other Information: Country of input: France; 8 refs.
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
12 MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES, AND NON-RADIOACTIVE WASTES FROM NUCLEAR FACILITIES; 46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; CHEMICAL COMPOSITION; DENSITY; DESIGN; FABRICATION; FILTERS; FILTRATION; PARTICLE SIZE; PARTICLES; POLYETHYLENES; SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; SEDIMENTATION; VELOCITY; WASTE MANAGEMENT; WASTES; X-RAY DIFFRACTION; ZIRCONIUM OXIDES

Citation Formats

Fountain, M. S., Blanchard, J., Erikson, R. L., Kurath, D. E., Howe, D. T., Adkins, H., and Jenks, J. Design of a Particle Shadow-graph Velocimetry and Size (PSVS) System to Determine Particle Size and Density Distributions in Hanford Nuclear Tank Wastes - 12280. United States: N. p., 2012. Web.
Fountain, M. S., Blanchard, J., Erikson, R. L., Kurath, D. E., Howe, D. T., Adkins, H., & Jenks, J. Design of a Particle Shadow-graph Velocimetry and Size (PSVS) System to Determine Particle Size and Density Distributions in Hanford Nuclear Tank Wastes - 12280. United States.
Fountain, M. S., Blanchard, J., Erikson, R. L., Kurath, D. E., Howe, D. T., Adkins, H., and Jenks, J. Sun . "Design of a Particle Shadow-graph Velocimetry and Size (PSVS) System to Determine Particle Size and Density Distributions in Hanford Nuclear Tank Wastes - 12280". United States.
@article{osti_22293561,
title = {Design of a Particle Shadow-graph Velocimetry and Size (PSVS) System to Determine Particle Size and Density Distributions in Hanford Nuclear Tank Wastes - 12280},
author = {Fountain, M. S. and Blanchard, J. and Erikson, R. L. and Kurath, D. E. and Howe, D. T. and Adkins, H. and Jenks, J.},
abstractNote = {Accurate particle size and density distributions for nuclear tank waste materials are essential information that helps determine the engineering requirements for a host of waste management unit operations (e.g., tank mixing, pipeline transport, and filtration). The most prevalent approach for determining particle size and density distribution is highly laborious and involves identifying individual particles using scanning electron microscope/x-ray diffraction and then acquiring the density of the materials from the technical literature. Other methods simply approximate individual particle densities by assuming chemical composition, rather than obtaining actual measurements of particle density. To overcome these limitations, a Particle Shadow-graph Velocimetry and Size (PSVS) system has been designed to simultaneously obtain particle size and density distributions for a broad range of Hanford tank waste materials existing as both individual particles and agglomerates. The PSVS system uses optical hardware, a temperature-controlled settling column, and particle introduction chamber to accurately and reproducibly obtain images of settling particles. Image analysis software provides a highly accurate determination of both particle terminal velocity and equivalent spherical particle diameter. The particle density is then calculated from Newton's terminal settling theory. The PSVS system was designed to accurately image particle/agglomerate sizes between 10 and 1000 μm and particle/agglomerate densities ranging from 1.4 to 11.5 g/cm{sup 3}, where the maximum terminal velocity does not exceed 10 cm/s. Preliminary testing was completed with standard materials and results were in good agreement with terminal settling theory. Recent results of this method development are presented, as well as experimental design. The primary goal of these PSVS system tests was to obtain accurate and reproducible particle size and velocity measurements to estimate particle densities within 20 percent of direct measured density values. The average percent error observed in particle densities was 4.8, 8.2, and 25.8 percent for S1D3 (high-density soda-lime glass), S3D4 (zirconia), and S1D2 (soda-lime glass) beads, respectively. The maximum measured particle density error observed was 14.5, 21.0, and 58.4, for S1D3, S3D4, and S1D2 beads, respectively. Multiple sources of error can exist that contribute to inaccurate estimates of particle density using the PSVS approach. Two significant influences observed were thermal convective currents in the settling column fluid and non-spherical (irregular) particle shapes in the standard test materials. Experimental results using buoyant beads suggest thermal convective currents can influence the movement of settling particles as much as 4 mm/s. These thermal convective currents are clearly a significant concern for smaller and less-dense particles/agglomerates which have terminal velocities of the same magnitude. Significant effort went into the design and fabrication of a thermal control system for the PSVS settling column. However, small temperature variations (<0.3 deg. C) are difficult to prevent and measure accurately. Therefore, although designing the thermal control system was necessary, it is not considered the only solution to minimize error due to thermal convective currents. The use of small diameter (10 to 27 μm) polyethylene buoyant beads (in low concentrations) during actual settling experiments may be necessary to provide insight into particle-particle interactions and fluid velocity correction factors to account for potential influences from thermal convective currents. Future testing will incorporate the buoyant beads into the analysis technique when the suspension fluid is chemically compatible. The use of the Newton's law to calculate particle/agglomerate densities assumes spherical particle shapes. As the actual particle/agglomerates diverge from spherical, the margin of error increases. The selection of high quality (in density and shape) monodispersed particle standards was a direct attempt to reduce the uncertainties associated with non-spherical or irregular particles and to only observe the PSVS method and analysis error. While investigating the source of data scatter for the S1D3 bead (nominal 700 μm) standard, significant irregular particles where discovered. Yet, a subsequent investigation into the S3D4 bead standard was also conducted and it was determined that 60 percent of the particles had a 0.9 to 0.8 centricity, 32 percent were between 0.8 and 0.7, only 7 percent were between 1.0 and 0.9, and the remaining 1 percent of the particles had centricities between 0.7 and 0.6. Contrast this with the S1D3 bead standard, where 100 percent of particles had centricities between 0.95 and 0.98, upon applying the centricity filter. The influence of the non-spherical shape of the S3D4 bead standard is evident when comparing a 3.9 percent average density error for S1D3 glass bead standard with an 8.3 percent average density error for the S3D4 bead standard. Model corrections for non-spherical shape must be implemented to account for these measurement errors during future method validation and system performance assessments. In addition, further work is needed to resolve the higher than expected velocities for the smaller S1D2 particles. Initial measurements conducted with buoyant beads as fluid velocity tracers indicate that fluid velocities can be subtracted from the increased particle velocities to determine the particle terminal velocity, regardless of the surrounding fluid velocity. However, this approach is in its infancy and will need to be carefully and methodically validated. (authors)},
doi = {},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22293561}, journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2012},
month = {7}
}

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