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Title: o-p′-DDT-mediated uterotrophy and gene expression in immature C57BL/6 mice and Sprague–Dawley rats

Abstract

1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2-bis(2-chlorophenyl-4-chlorophenyl)ethane (o,p′-DDT) is an organochlorine pesticide and endocrine disruptor known to activate the estrogen receptor. Comprehensive ligand- and species-comparative dose- and time-dependent studies were conducted to systematically assess the uterine physiological, morphological and gene expression responses elicited by o,p′-DDT and ethynyl estradiol (EE) in immature ovariectomized C57BL/6 mice and Sprague–Dawley rats. Custom cDNA microarrays were used to identify conserved and divergent differential gene expression responses. A total of 1256 genes were differentially expressed by both ligands in both species, 559 of which exhibited similar temporal expression profiles suggesting that o,p′-DDT elicits estrogenic effects at high doses when compared to EE. However, 51 genes exhibited species-specific uterine expression elicited by o,p′-DDT. For example, carbonic anhydrase 2 exhibited species- and ligand-divergent expression as confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. The identification of comparable temporal phenotypic responses linked to gene expression demonstrates that systematic comparative gene expression assessments are valuable for elucidating conserved and divergent estrogen signaling mechanisms in rodent uterotrophy. - Highlights: • o,p′-DDT and enthynyl estradiol (EE) both elicit uterotrophy in mice and rats. • o,p′-DDT and EE have different kinetics in uterine wet weight induction. • o,p′-DDT elicited stromal hypertrophy in rats but myometrial hypertrophy in mice. • 1256 genes weremore » differentially expressed by both ligands in both species. • Only 51 genes had species-specific uterine expression.« less

Authors:
;  [1];  [2];  [3];  [1];  [2]
  1. Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States)
  2. (United States)
  3. Pathobiology and Diagnostic Investigation, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22285534
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology; Journal Volume: 273; Journal Issue: 3; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2013 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; CARBONIC ANHYDRASE; DDT; ESTRADIOL; ETHANE; GENES; HYPERTROPHY; LIGANDS; MICE; RATS; RECEPTORS; TIME DEPENDENCE; UTERUS

Citation Formats

Kwekel, Joshua C., Forgacs, Agnes L., Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, Williams, Kurt J., Zacharewski, Timothy R., E-mail: tzachare@msu.edu, and Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI. o-p′-DDT-mediated uterotrophy and gene expression in immature C57BL/6 mice and Sprague–Dawley rats. United States: N. p., 2013. Web. doi:10.1016/J.TAAP.2013.09.024.
Kwekel, Joshua C., Forgacs, Agnes L., Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, Williams, Kurt J., Zacharewski, Timothy R., E-mail: tzachare@msu.edu, & Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI. o-p′-DDT-mediated uterotrophy and gene expression in immature C57BL/6 mice and Sprague–Dawley rats. United States. doi:10.1016/J.TAAP.2013.09.024.
Kwekel, Joshua C., Forgacs, Agnes L., Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, Williams, Kurt J., Zacharewski, Timothy R., E-mail: tzachare@msu.edu, and Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI. Sun . "o-p′-DDT-mediated uterotrophy and gene expression in immature C57BL/6 mice and Sprague–Dawley rats". United States. doi:10.1016/J.TAAP.2013.09.024.
@article{osti_22285534,
title = {o-p′-DDT-mediated uterotrophy and gene expression in immature C57BL/6 mice and Sprague–Dawley rats},
author = {Kwekel, Joshua C. and Forgacs, Agnes L. and Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI and Williams, Kurt J. and Zacharewski, Timothy R., E-mail: tzachare@msu.edu and Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI},
abstractNote = {1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2-bis(2-chlorophenyl-4-chlorophenyl)ethane (o,p′-DDT) is an organochlorine pesticide and endocrine disruptor known to activate the estrogen receptor. Comprehensive ligand- and species-comparative dose- and time-dependent studies were conducted to systematically assess the uterine physiological, morphological and gene expression responses elicited by o,p′-DDT and ethynyl estradiol (EE) in immature ovariectomized C57BL/6 mice and Sprague–Dawley rats. Custom cDNA microarrays were used to identify conserved and divergent differential gene expression responses. A total of 1256 genes were differentially expressed by both ligands in both species, 559 of which exhibited similar temporal expression profiles suggesting that o,p′-DDT elicits estrogenic effects at high doses when compared to EE. However, 51 genes exhibited species-specific uterine expression elicited by o,p′-DDT. For example, carbonic anhydrase 2 exhibited species- and ligand-divergent expression as confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. The identification of comparable temporal phenotypic responses linked to gene expression demonstrates that systematic comparative gene expression assessments are valuable for elucidating conserved and divergent estrogen signaling mechanisms in rodent uterotrophy. - Highlights: • o,p′-DDT and enthynyl estradiol (EE) both elicit uterotrophy in mice and rats. • o,p′-DDT and EE have different kinetics in uterine wet weight induction. • o,p′-DDT elicited stromal hypertrophy in rats but myometrial hypertrophy in mice. • 1256 genes were differentially expressed by both ligands in both species. • Only 51 genes had species-specific uterine expression.},
doi = {10.1016/J.TAAP.2013.09.024},
journal = {Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology},
number = 3,
volume = 273,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Dec 15 00:00:00 EST 2013},
month = {Sun Dec 15 00:00:00 EST 2013}
}
  • Although the structure and function of the AhR are conserved, emerging evidence suggests that downstream effects are species-specific. In this study, rat hepatic gene expression data from the DrugMatrix database (National Toxicology Program) were compared to mouse hepatic whole-genome gene expression data following treatment with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). For the DrugMatrix study, male Sprague–Dawley rats were gavaged daily with 20 μg/kg TCDD for 1, 3 and 5 days, while female C57BL/6 ovariectomized mice were examined 1, 3 and 7 days after a single oral gavage of 30 μg/kg TCDD. A total of 649 rat and 1386 mouse genes (|fold change| ≥more » 1.5, P1(t) ≥ 0.99) were differentially expressed following treatment. HomoloGene identified 11,708 orthologs represented across the rat Affymetrix 230 2.0 GeneChip (12,310 total orthologs), and the mouse 4 × 44K v.1 Agilent oligonucleotide array (17,578 total orthologs). Comparative analysis found 563 and 922 orthologs differentially expressed in response to TCDD in the rat and mouse, respectively, with 70 responses associated with immune function and lipid metabolism in common to both. Moreover, QRTPCR analysis of Ceacam1, showed divergent expression (induced in rat; repressed in mouse) functionally consistent with TCDD-elicited hepatic steatosis in the mouse but not the rat. Functional analysis identified orthologs involved in nucleotide binding and acetyltransferase activity in rat, while mouse-specific responses were associated with steroid, phospholipid, fatty acid, and carbohydrate metabolism. These results provide further evidence that TCDD elicits species-specific regulation of distinct gene networks, and outlines considerations for future comparisons of publicly available microarray datasets. - Highlights: ► We performed a whole-genome comparison of TCDD-regulated genes in mice and rats. ► Previous species comparisons were extended using data from the DrugMatrix database. ► Less than 15% of TCDD-regulated orthologs were common to mice and rats. ► Considerations for the comparison of publicly available datasets are described.« less
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  • Interactions between environmental contaminants can lead to non-additive effects that may affect the toxicity and risk assessment of a mixture. Comprehensive time course and dose-response studies with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), non-dioxin-like 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153) and their mixture were performed in immature, ovariectomized C57BL/6 mice. Mice were gavaged once with 30 {mu}g/kg TCDD, 300 mg/kg PCB153, a mixture of 30 {mu}g/kg TCDD with 300 mg/kg PCB153 (MIX) or sesame oil vehicle for 4,12, 24,72 or 168 h. In the 24 h dose-response study, animals were gavaged with TCDD (0.3,1, 3, 6, 10, 15, 30, 45 {mu}g/kg), PCB153 (3,10, 30, 60, 100, 150, 300,more » 450 mg/kg), MIX (0.3 + 3, 1 + 10, 3 + 30, 6 + 60, 10 + 100, 15 + 150, 30 + 300, 45 {mu}g/kg TCDD + 450 mg/kg PCB153, respectively) or vehicle. All three treatments significantly increased relative liver weights (RLW), with MIX eliciting significantly greater increases compared to TCDD and PCB153 alone. Histologically, MIX induced hepatocellular hypertrophy, vacuolization, inflammation, hyperplasia and necrosis, a combination of TCDD and PCB153 responses. Complementary lipid analyses identified significant increases in hepatic triglycerides in MIX and TCDD samples, while PCB153 had no effect on lipids. Hepatic PCB153 levels were also significantly increased with TCDD co-treatment. Microarray analysis identified 167 TCDD, 185 PCB153 and 388 MIX unique differentially expressed genes. Statistical modeling of quantitative real-time PCR analysis of Pla2g12a, Serpinb6a, Nqo1, Srxn1, and Dysf verified non-additive expression following MIX treatment compared to TCDD and PCB153 alone. In summary, TCDD and PCB153 co-treatment elicited specific non-additive gene expression effects that are consistent with RLW increases, histopathology, and hepatic lipid accumulation. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > MIX (TCDD:PCB153 at 1:10,000 ratio) exposure leads to non-additive gene expression. > MIX-induced liver weights are significantly greater relative to single chemicals. > MIX exposure leads to potentiation of hepatic PCB153 levels compared to TCDD. > MIX synergistically induces expression of Nqo1, Dysf, Pla2g12a, Serpinb6a, and Srxn1. > Non-additive gene expression supports putative non-additive phenotypic responses.« less
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