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Title: Modulation of benzo[a]pyrene induced neurotoxicity in female mice actively immunized with a B[a]P–diphtheria toxoid conjugate

Abstract

Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a small molecular weight carcinogen and the prototype of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). While these compounds are primarily known for their carcinogenicity, B[a]P and its metabolites are also neurotoxic for mammalian species. To develop a prophylactic immune strategy against detrimental effects of B[a]P, female Balb/c mice immunized with a B[a]P–diphtheria toxoid (B[a]P–DT) conjugate vaccine were sub-acutely exposed to 2 mg/kg B[a]P and behavioral performances were monitored in tests related to learning and memory, anxiety and motor coordination. mRNA expression of the NMDA receptor (NR1, 2A and 2B subunits) involved in the above behavioral functions was measured in 5 brain regions. B[a]P induced NMDA1 expression in three (hippocampus, amygdala and cerebellum) of five brain regions investigated, and modulated NMDA2 in two of the five brain regions (frontal cortex and cerebellum). Each one of these B[a]P-effects was reversed in mice that were immunized against this PAH, with measurable consequences on behavior such as anxiety, short term learning and memory. Thus active immunization against B[a]P with a B[a]P–DT conjugate vaccine had a protective effect and attenuated the pharmacological and neurotoxic effects even of high concentrations of B[a]P. - Highlights: • B[a]P-antibodies attenuated B[a]P induced NMDA expression in several brain regions.more » • B[a]P had measurable consequences on anxiety, short term learning and memory. • B[a]P immunization attenuated the pharmacological and neurotoxic effects of B[a]P. • Vaccination may also provide some protection against chemical carcinogenesis.« less

Authors:
; ; ;  [1];  [2];  [1]
  1. Institute of Immunology, Centre de Recherche Public de la Santé/Laboratoire National de Santé, 20A rue Auguste Lumière, L-1950 Luxembourg, Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg (Luxembourg)
  2. University of Nancy, URAFPA, INRA UC340, F-54500 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22285368
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology; Journal Volume: 271; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2013 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; BUTYRIC ACID; CARCINOGENESIS; CARCINOGENS; CEREBELLUM; DIPHTHERIA; HIPPOCAMPUS; MESSENGER-RNA; METABOLITES; MICE; MOLECULAR WEIGHT; POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS; POLYPEPTIDES; PYRENE; RECEPTORS; VACCINES

Citation Formats

Schellenberger, Mario T., Grova, Nathalie, Farinelle, Sophie, Willième, Stéphanie, Schroeder, Henri, and Muller, Claude P., E-mail: claude.muller@crp-sante.lu. Modulation of benzo[a]pyrene induced neurotoxicity in female mice actively immunized with a B[a]P–diphtheria toxoid conjugate. United States: N. p., 2013. Web. doi:10.1016/J.TAAP.2013.05.007.
Schellenberger, Mario T., Grova, Nathalie, Farinelle, Sophie, Willième, Stéphanie, Schroeder, Henri, & Muller, Claude P., E-mail: claude.muller@crp-sante.lu. Modulation of benzo[a]pyrene induced neurotoxicity in female mice actively immunized with a B[a]P–diphtheria toxoid conjugate. United States. doi:10.1016/J.TAAP.2013.05.007.
Schellenberger, Mario T., Grova, Nathalie, Farinelle, Sophie, Willième, Stéphanie, Schroeder, Henri, and Muller, Claude P., E-mail: claude.muller@crp-sante.lu. Sun . "Modulation of benzo[a]pyrene induced neurotoxicity in female mice actively immunized with a B[a]P–diphtheria toxoid conjugate". United States. doi:10.1016/J.TAAP.2013.05.007.
@article{osti_22285368,
title = {Modulation of benzo[a]pyrene induced neurotoxicity in female mice actively immunized with a B[a]P–diphtheria toxoid conjugate},
author = {Schellenberger, Mario T. and Grova, Nathalie and Farinelle, Sophie and Willième, Stéphanie and Schroeder, Henri and Muller, Claude P., E-mail: claude.muller@crp-sante.lu},
abstractNote = {Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a small molecular weight carcinogen and the prototype of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). While these compounds are primarily known for their carcinogenicity, B[a]P and its metabolites are also neurotoxic for mammalian species. To develop a prophylactic immune strategy against detrimental effects of B[a]P, female Balb/c mice immunized with a B[a]P–diphtheria toxoid (B[a]P–DT) conjugate vaccine were sub-acutely exposed to 2 mg/kg B[a]P and behavioral performances were monitored in tests related to learning and memory, anxiety and motor coordination. mRNA expression of the NMDA receptor (NR1, 2A and 2B subunits) involved in the above behavioral functions was measured in 5 brain regions. B[a]P induced NMDA1 expression in three (hippocampus, amygdala and cerebellum) of five brain regions investigated, and modulated NMDA2 in two of the five brain regions (frontal cortex and cerebellum). Each one of these B[a]P-effects was reversed in mice that were immunized against this PAH, with measurable consequences on behavior such as anxiety, short term learning and memory. Thus active immunization against B[a]P with a B[a]P–DT conjugate vaccine had a protective effect and attenuated the pharmacological and neurotoxic effects even of high concentrations of B[a]P. - Highlights: • B[a]P-antibodies attenuated B[a]P induced NMDA expression in several brain regions. • B[a]P had measurable consequences on anxiety, short term learning and memory. • B[a]P immunization attenuated the pharmacological and neurotoxic effects of B[a]P. • Vaccination may also provide some protection against chemical carcinogenesis.},
doi = {10.1016/J.TAAP.2013.05.007},
journal = {Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology},
number = 2,
volume = 271,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Sep 01 00:00:00 EDT 2013},
month = {Sun Sep 01 00:00:00 EDT 2013}
}
  • Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a small molecular weight carcinogen and the prototype of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). While these compounds are primarily known for their carcinogenicity, B[a]P and its metabolites are also toxic for mammalian immune cells. To develop a prophylactic immune strategy against detrimental effects of B[a]P, we have immunized mice with a B[a]P-diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine. We showed that high levels of antibodies against B[a]P and its metabolites modulate the redistribution of these PAHs in the blood. After immunization, increased levels of B[a]P and its metabolites were recovered in the blood. B[a]P significantly suppressed the proliferative response of bothmore » T and B cells after a sub-acute administration, an effect that was completely reversed by vaccination. In immunized mice also the immunotoxic effect of B[a]P on IFN-{gamma}, IL-12, TNF-{alpha} production and the reduced B cell activation was restored. Finally, our results showed that specific antibodies inhibited the induction of Cyp1a1 by B[a]P in lymphocytes and Cyp1b1 in the liver, enzymes that are known to convert the procarcinogen B[a]P to the ultimate DNA-adduct forming metabolite, a major risk factor of chemical carcinogenesis. Thus, we demonstrate that vaccination with a B[a]P conjugate vaccine based on a carrier protein used in licensed human vaccines reduces immunotoxicity and possibly other detrimental effects associated with B[a]P.« less
  • Coumarin has been shown to be an effective inhibitor of carcinogenesis in rodents if given before and during the carcinogen treatment. The authors investigated the possibility that pretreatment with coumarin would inhibit the genotoxicity of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) in ICR mice as indicated by the bone marrow micronucleus test, a widely used in vivo test for genotoxicity. The studies showed that pretreatment of male mice with doses of coumarin at 65 or 130 mg/kg/day for 1 week (with 1 day of no treatment at midweek) partially inhibited the genotoxicity of BP at a single intraperitoneal dose of 150 mg/kg. Time coursemore » experiments showed a decrease in induced micronuclei in the bone marrow at several time points after the BP treatment, thus indicating a true inhibition and not a lag in the induction of micronuclei. However, no inhibition in micronuclei formation was seen in female mice pretreated with the same doses of coumarin. Coumarin treatment alone did not induce micronuclei in either sex. Future studies are needed to analyze the mechanisms responsible for the difference noted between the sexes.« less
  • Transplacental exposure of fetuses to carcinogens is known to induce tumors in the offspring, often with a high incidence and short latency. While covalent adduction of DNA appears to be essential for tumor initiation, little is known about the binding of carcinogens to the DNA of fetal tissues. A sensitive /sup 32/P-postlabeling method enabled us to study the binding of the environmental carcinogens safrole (600 mumol/kg p.o.), 4-aminobiphenyl (800 mumol/kg), and benzo(a)pyrene (200 mumol/kg) to the DNA of various maternal and fetal tissues after administration of test carcinogens to pregnant ICR mice on day 18 of gestation. The results showmore » that these carcinogens bound to the DNA of maternal and fetal liver, lung, kidney, heart, brain, intestine, skin, maternal uterus, and placenta, with organ-specific quantitative and qualitative differences. It was possible for the first time to analyze DNA adduct patterns in minute amounts of tissue, for example those available from fetal heart. The covalent binding index 24 h after safrole treatment was estimated for the different organs and ranged from 0.1 to 247 and 0.1 to 5.8 for maternal and fetal DNA, respectively. Covalent binding index values of 0.2 to 13 and 0.1 to 0.3 for maternal and fetal DNA, respectively, were found for 4-aminobiphenyl. Benzo(a)pyrene treatment yielded covalent binding index values of 0.6 to 6.5 and 0.3 to 0.7 for maternal and fetal DNA, respectively. In both maternal and fetal tissues, safrole exhibited preferential binding to liver DNA. 4-Aminobiphenyl bound preferentially to DNA of maternal liver and kidney but showed no preference among fetal tissues. Benzo(a)pyrene exhibited weak tissue preference in both maternal and fetal organs.« less
  • White mice were twofold immunized with various doses of adsorbed tetanus toxoid and irradiated with a dose of 500 R at various time intervals before and after the second immunization. The secondary response of the animals was more resistant to irradiation than the primary one. It was found, however, that antibody synthesis was disturbed in mice irradiated 1 to 2 hrs prior to the second immunization. The detrimental effect of irradiation was found to depend to a high extent on antigen dose used for the first, and not the second, immunization. (auth)