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Title: MODELING THE NON-RECYCLED FERMI GAMMA-RAY PULSAR POPULATION

Abstract

We use Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope detections and upper limits on non-recycled pulsars obtained from the Large Area Telescope (LAT) to constrain how the gamma-ray luminosity L{sub γ} depends on the period P and the period derivative P-dot . We use a Bayesian analysis to calculate a best-fit luminosity law, or dependence of L{sub γ} on P and P-dot , including different methods for modeling the beaming factor. An outer gap (OG) magnetosphere geometry provides the best-fit model, which is L{sub γ}∝P{sup -a} P-dot {sup b} where a = 1.36 ± 0.03 and b = 0.44 ± 0.02, similar to but not identical to the commonly assumed L{sub γ}∝√( E-dot )∝P{sup -1.5} P-dot {sup 0.5}. Given upper limits on gamma-ray fluxes of currently known radio pulsars and using the OG model, we find that about 92% of the radio-detected pulsars have gamma-ray beams that intersect our line of sight. By modeling the misalignment of radio and gamma-ray beams of these pulsars, we find an average gamma-ray beaming solid angle of about 3.7π for the OG model, assuming a uniform beam. Using LAT-measured diffuse fluxes, we place a 2σ upper limit on the average braking index and a 2σ lower limitmore » on the average surface magnetic field strength of the pulsar population of 3.8 and 3.2 × 10{sup 10} G, respectively. We then predict the number of non-recycled pulsars detectable by the LAT based on our population model. Using the 2 yr sensitivity, we find that the LAT is capable of detecting emission from about 380 non-recycled pulsars, including 150 currently identified radio pulsars. Using the expected 5 yr sensitivity, about 620 non-recycled pulsars are detectable, including about 220 currently identified radio pulsars. We note that these predictions significantly depend on our model assumptions.« less

Authors:
;  [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5]
  1. Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States)
  2. Astronomy Department and NAIC, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)
  3. W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)
  4. Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1560 (United States)
  5. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22270745
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal; Journal Volume: 776; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; ASTROPHYSICS; EMISSION; GAMMA ASTRONOMY; GAMMA DETECTION; GAMMA RADIATION; LUMINOSITY; MAGNETIC FIELDS; NEUTRONS; PULSARS; SENSITIVITY; STARS; TELESCOPES

Citation Formats

Perera, B. B. P., McLaughlin, M. A., Cordes, J. M., Kerr, M., Burnett, T. H., and Harding, A. K. MODELING THE NON-RECYCLED FERMI GAMMA-RAY PULSAR POPULATION. United States: N. p., 2013. Web. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/776/1/61.
Perera, B. B. P., McLaughlin, M. A., Cordes, J. M., Kerr, M., Burnett, T. H., & Harding, A. K. MODELING THE NON-RECYCLED FERMI GAMMA-RAY PULSAR POPULATION. United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/776/1/61.
Perera, B. B. P., McLaughlin, M. A., Cordes, J. M., Kerr, M., Burnett, T. H., and Harding, A. K. Thu . "MODELING THE NON-RECYCLED FERMI GAMMA-RAY PULSAR POPULATION". United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/776/1/61.
@article{osti_22270745,
title = {MODELING THE NON-RECYCLED FERMI GAMMA-RAY PULSAR POPULATION},
author = {Perera, B. B. P. and McLaughlin, M. A. and Cordes, J. M. and Kerr, M. and Burnett, T. H. and Harding, A. K.},
abstractNote = {We use Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope detections and upper limits on non-recycled pulsars obtained from the Large Area Telescope (LAT) to constrain how the gamma-ray luminosity L{sub γ} depends on the period P and the period derivative P-dot . We use a Bayesian analysis to calculate a best-fit luminosity law, or dependence of L{sub γ} on P and P-dot , including different methods for modeling the beaming factor. An outer gap (OG) magnetosphere geometry provides the best-fit model, which is L{sub γ}∝P{sup -a} P-dot {sup b} where a = 1.36 ± 0.03 and b = 0.44 ± 0.02, similar to but not identical to the commonly assumed L{sub γ}∝√( E-dot )∝P{sup -1.5} P-dot {sup 0.5}. Given upper limits on gamma-ray fluxes of currently known radio pulsars and using the OG model, we find that about 92% of the radio-detected pulsars have gamma-ray beams that intersect our line of sight. By modeling the misalignment of radio and gamma-ray beams of these pulsars, we find an average gamma-ray beaming solid angle of about 3.7π for the OG model, assuming a uniform beam. Using LAT-measured diffuse fluxes, we place a 2σ upper limit on the average braking index and a 2σ lower limit on the average surface magnetic field strength of the pulsar population of 3.8 and 3.2 × 10{sup 10} G, respectively. We then predict the number of non-recycled pulsars detectable by the LAT based on our population model. Using the 2 yr sensitivity, we find that the LAT is capable of detecting emission from about 380 non-recycled pulsars, including 150 currently identified radio pulsars. Using the expected 5 yr sensitivity, about 620 non-recycled pulsars are detectable, including about 220 currently identified radio pulsars. We note that these predictions significantly depend on our model assumptions.},
doi = {10.1088/0004-637X/776/1/61},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal},
number = 1,
volume = 776,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Oct 10 00:00:00 EDT 2013},
month = {Thu Oct 10 00:00:00 EDT 2013}
}
  • Here, we use Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope detections and upper limits on non-recycled pulsars obtained from the Large Area Telescope (LAT) to constrain how the gamma-ray luminosity L γ depends on the period P and the period derivativemore » $$\dot{P}$$. We use a Bayesian analysis to calculate a best-fit luminosity law, or dependence of L γ on P and $$\dot{P}$$, including different methods for modeling the beaming factor. An outer gap (OG) magnetosphere geometry provides the best-fit model, which is $$L_\gamma \propto P^{-a} \dot{P}^{b}$$ where a = 1.36 ± 0.03 and b = 0.44 ± 0.02, similar to but not identical to the commonly assumed $$L_\gamma \propto \sqrt{\dot{E}} \propto P^{-1.5} \dot{P}^{0.5}$$. Given upper limits on gamma-ray fluxes of currently known radio pulsars and using the OG model, we find that about 92% of the radio-detected pulsars have gamma-ray beams that intersect our line of sight. By modeling the misalignment of radio and gamma-ray beams of these pulsars, we find an average gamma-ray beaming solid angle of about 3.7π for the OG model, assuming a uniform beam. Using LAT-measured diffuse fluxes, we place a 2σ upper limit on the average braking index and a 2σ lower limit on the average surface magnetic field strength of the pulsar population of 3.8 and 3.2 × 1010 G, respectively. We then predict the number of non-recycled pulsars detectable by the LAT based on our population model. Using the 2 yr sensitivity, we find that the LAT is capable of detecting emission from about 380 non-recycled pulsars, including 150 currently identified radio pulsars. Using the expected 5 yr sensitivity, about 620 non-recycled pulsars are detectable, including about 220 currently identified radio pulsars. As a result, we note that these predictions significantly depend on our model assumptions.« less
  • In this study, it has been suggested that the GeV excess, observed from the region surrounding the Galactic Center, might originate from a population of millisecond pulsars that formed in globular clusters. With this in mind, we employ the publicly available Fermi data to study the gamma-ray emission from 157 globular clusters, identifying a statistically significant signal from 25 of these sources (ten of which are not found in existing gamma-ray catalogs). We combine these observations with the predicted pulsar formation rate based on the stellar encounter rate of each globular cluster to constrain the gamma-ray luminosity function of millisecondmore » pulsars in the Milky Way's globular cluster system. We find that this pulsar population exhibits a luminosity function that is quite similar to those millisecond pulsars observed in the field of the Milky Way (i.e. the thick disk). After pulsars are expelled from a globular cluster, however, they continue to lose rotational kinetic energy and become less luminous, causing their luminosity function to depart from the steady-state distribution. Using this luminosity function and a model for the globular cluster disruption rate, we show that millisecond pulsars born in globular clusters can account for only a few percent or less of the observed GeV excess. Among other challenges, scenarios in which the entire GeV excess is generated from such pulsars are in conflict with the observed mass of the Milky Way's Central Stellar Cluster.« less
  • Energetic young pulsars and expanding blast waves (supernova remnants, SNRs) are the most visible remains after massive stars, ending their lives, explode in core-collapse supernovae. The Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has unveiled a radio quiet pulsar located near the center of the compact synchrotron nebula inside the supernova remnant CTA 1. The pulsar, discovered through its gamma-ray pulsations, has a period of 316.86 ms, a period derivative of 3.614 x 10{sup -13} s s{sup -1}. Its characteristic age of 10{sup 4} years is comparable to that estimated for the SNR. It is conjectured that most unidentified Galactic gamma ray sourcesmore » associated with star-forming regions and SNRs are such young pulsars.« less
  • We report the discovery of {gamma}-ray pulsations ({ge}0.1 GeV) from the young radio and X-ray pulsar PSR J0205 + 6449 located in the Galactic supernova remnant 3C 58. Data in the {gamma}-ray band were acquired by the Large Area Telescope aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (formerly GLAST), while the radio rotational ephemeris used to fold {gamma}-rays was obtained using both the Green Bank Telescope and the Lovell telescope at Jodrell Bank. The light curve consists of two peaks separated by 0.49 {+-} 0.01 {+-} 0.01 cycles which are aligned with the X-ray peaks. The first {gamma}-ray peak trails themore » radio pulse by 0.08 {+-} 0.01 {+-} 0.01, while its amplitude decreases with increasing energy as for the other {gamma}-ray pulsars. Spectral analysis of the pulsed {gamma}-ray emission suggests a simple power law of index -2.1 {+-} 0.1 {+-} 0.2 with an exponential cutoff at 3.0{sub -0.7}{sup +1.1} {+-} 0.4 GeV. The first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. The integral {gamma}-ray photon flux above 0.1 GeV is (13.7 {+-} 1.4 {+-} 3.0) x 10{sup -8} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, which implies for a distance of 3.2 kpc and assuming a broad fan-like beam a luminosity of 8.3 x 10{sup 34} erg s{sup -1} and an efficiency {eta} of 0.3%. Finally, we report a 95% upper limit on the flux of 1.7 x 10{sup -8} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} for off-pulse emission from the object.« less