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Title: THE POTENTIAL IMPORTANCE OF BINARY EVOLUTION IN ULTRAVIOLET-OPTICAL SPECTRAL FITTING OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

Abstract

Most galaxies possibly contain some binaries, and more than half of Galactic hot subdwarf stars, which are thought to be a possible origin of the UV-upturn of old stellar populations, are found in binaries. However, the effect of binary evolution has not been taken into account in most works on the spectral fitting of galaxies. This paper studies the role of binary evolution in the spectral fitting of early-type galaxies, via a stellar population synthesis model including both single and binary star populations. Spectra from ultraviolet to optical bands are fitted to determine a few galaxy parameters. The results show that the inclusion of binaries in stellar population models may lead to obvious change in the determination of some parameters of early-type galaxies and therefore it is potentially important for spectral studies. In particular, the ages of young components of composite stellar populations become much older when using binary star population models instead of single star population models. This implies that binary star population models will measure significantly different star formation histories for early-type galaxies compared to single star population models. In addition, stellar population models with binary interactions on average measure larger dust extinctions than single star population models.more » This suggests that when binary star population models are used, negative extinctions are possibly no longer necessary in the spectral fitting of galaxies (see previous works, e.g., Cid Fernandes et al. for comparison). Furthermore, it is shown that optical spectra have strong constraints on stellar age while UV spectra have strong constraints on binary fraction. Finally, our results suggest that binary star population models can provide new insight into the stellar properties of globular clusters.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. Institute for Astronomy and History of Science and Technology, Dali University, Dali 671003 (China)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22270721
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal; Journal Volume: 776; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; ASTRONOMY; ASTROPHYSICS; BINARY STARS; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; GALACTIC EVOLUTION; GALAXIES; STAR EVOLUTION; STAR MODELS; SYNTHESIS; ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION; ULTRAVIOLET SPECTRA

Citation Formats

Li, Zhongmu, Mao, Caiyan, Chen, Li, Zhang, Qian, and Li, Maocai, E-mail: zhongmu.li@gmail.com. THE POTENTIAL IMPORTANCE OF BINARY EVOLUTION IN ULTRAVIOLET-OPTICAL SPECTRAL FITTING OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES. United States: N. p., 2013. Web. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/776/1/37.
Li, Zhongmu, Mao, Caiyan, Chen, Li, Zhang, Qian, & Li, Maocai, E-mail: zhongmu.li@gmail.com. THE POTENTIAL IMPORTANCE OF BINARY EVOLUTION IN ULTRAVIOLET-OPTICAL SPECTRAL FITTING OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES. United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/776/1/37.
Li, Zhongmu, Mao, Caiyan, Chen, Li, Zhang, Qian, and Li, Maocai, E-mail: zhongmu.li@gmail.com. Thu . "THE POTENTIAL IMPORTANCE OF BINARY EVOLUTION IN ULTRAVIOLET-OPTICAL SPECTRAL FITTING OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES". United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/776/1/37.
@article{osti_22270721,
title = {THE POTENTIAL IMPORTANCE OF BINARY EVOLUTION IN ULTRAVIOLET-OPTICAL SPECTRAL FITTING OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES},
author = {Li, Zhongmu and Mao, Caiyan and Chen, Li and Zhang, Qian and Li, Maocai, E-mail: zhongmu.li@gmail.com},
abstractNote = {Most galaxies possibly contain some binaries, and more than half of Galactic hot subdwarf stars, which are thought to be a possible origin of the UV-upturn of old stellar populations, are found in binaries. However, the effect of binary evolution has not been taken into account in most works on the spectral fitting of galaxies. This paper studies the role of binary evolution in the spectral fitting of early-type galaxies, via a stellar population synthesis model including both single and binary star populations. Spectra from ultraviolet to optical bands are fitted to determine a few galaxy parameters. The results show that the inclusion of binaries in stellar population models may lead to obvious change in the determination of some parameters of early-type galaxies and therefore it is potentially important for spectral studies. In particular, the ages of young components of composite stellar populations become much older when using binary star population models instead of single star population models. This implies that binary star population models will measure significantly different star formation histories for early-type galaxies compared to single star population models. In addition, stellar population models with binary interactions on average measure larger dust extinctions than single star population models. This suggests that when binary star population models are used, negative extinctions are possibly no longer necessary in the spectral fitting of galaxies (see previous works, e.g., Cid Fernandes et al. for comparison). Furthermore, it is shown that optical spectra have strong constraints on stellar age while UV spectra have strong constraints on binary fraction. Finally, our results suggest that binary star population models can provide new insight into the stellar properties of globular clusters.},
doi = {10.1088/0004-637X/776/1/37},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal},
number = 1,
volume = 776,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Oct 10 00:00:00 EDT 2013},
month = {Thu Oct 10 00:00:00 EDT 2013}
}
  • This work develops models for the spectral evolution of early-type galaxies using population synthesis techniques. Different choices of the initial mass function and the star formation rare allow the construction of models which at the present epoch cover the range of observed galaxy spectra. Special emphasis is given to the ultraviolet region of the spectrum. Ultraviolet spectra of late-type stars and early-type galaxies obtained with the International Ultraviolet Explorer satellite are used in this work. The evolving spectral energy distributions are used to compute galaxy colors, magnitudes, K-corrections, and evolutionary corrections as functions of redshift for different photometric systems.
  • We present an analysis of stellar populations and evolutionary history of galaxies in three similarly rich galaxy clusters MS0451.6-0305 (z = 0.54), RXJ0152.7-1357 (z = 0.83), and RXJ1226.9+3332 (z = 0.89). Our analysis is based on high signal-to-noise ground-based optical spectroscopy and Hubble Space Telescope imaging for a total of 17-34 members in each cluster. Using the dynamical masses together with the effective radii and the velocity dispersions, we find no indication of evolution of sizes or velocity dispersions with redshift at a given galaxy mass. We establish the Fundamental Plane (FP) and scaling relations between absorption line indices andmore » velocity dispersions. We confirm that the FP is steeper at z Almost-Equal-To 0.86 compared to the low-redshift FP, indicating that under the assumption of passive evolution the formation redshift, z{sub form}, depends on the galaxy velocity dispersion (or alternatively mass). At a velocity dispersion of {sigma} = 125 km s{sup -1} (Mass = 10{sup 10.55} M{sub Sun }) we find z{sub form} = 1.24 {+-} 0.05, while at {sigma} = 225 km s{sup -1} (Mass = 10{sup 11.36} M{sub Sun }) the formation redshift is z{sub form} = 1.95{sup +0.3}{sub -0.2}, for a Salpeter initial mass function. The three clusters follow similar scaling relations between absorption line indices and velocity dispersions as those found for low-redshift galaxies. The zero point offsets for the Balmer lines depend on cluster redshifts. However, the offsets indicate a slower evolution, and therefore higher formation redshift, than the zero point differences found from the FP, if interpreting the data using a passive evolution model. Specifically, the strength of the higher order Balmer lines H{delta} and H{gamma} implies z{sub form} > 2.8. The scaling relations for the metal indices in general show small and in some cases insignificant zero point offsets, favoring high formation redshifts for a passive evolution model. Based on the absorption line indices and recent stellar population models from Thomas et al., we find that MS0451.6-0305 has a mean metallicity [M/H] approximately 0.2 dex below that of the other clusters and our low-redshift sample. We confirm our previous result that RXJ0152.7-1357 has a mean abundance ratio [{alpha}/Fe] approximately 0.3 dex higher than that of the other clusters. The differences in [M/H] and [{alpha}/Fe] between the high-redshift clusters and the low-redshift sample are inconsistent with a passive evolution scenario for early-type cluster galaxies over the redshift interval studied. Low-level star formation may be able to bring the metallicity of MS0451.6-0305 in agreement with the low-redshift sample, while we speculate whether galaxy mergers can lead to sufficiently large changes in the abundance ratios for the RXJ0152.7-1357 galaxies to allow them to reach the low-redshift sample values in the time available.« less
  • We present robust statistical estimates of the accuracy of early-type galaxy stellar masses derived from spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting as functions of various empirical and theoretical assumptions. Using large samples consisting of {approx}40,000 galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS; ugriz), of which {approx}5000 are also in the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (YJHK), with spectroscopic redshifts in the range 0.05 {<=} z {<=} 0.095, we test the reliability of some commonly used stellar population models and extinction laws for computing stellar masses. Spectroscopic ages (t), metallicities (Z), and extinctions (A{sub V} ) are also computed from fitsmore » to SDSS spectra using various population models. These external constraints are used in additional tests to estimate the systematic errors in the stellar masses derived from SED fitting, where t, Z, and A{sub V} are typically left as free parameters. We find reasonable agreement in mass estimates among stellar population models, with variation of the initial mass function and extinction law yielding systematic biases on the mass of nearly a factor of two, in agreement with other studies. Removing the near-infrared bands changes the statistical bias in mass by only {approx}0.06 dex, adding uncertainties of {approx}0.1 dex at the 95% CL. In contrast, we find that removing an ultraviolet band is more critical, introducing 2{sigma} uncertainties of {approx}0.15 dex. Finally, we find that the stellar masses are less affected by the absence of metallicity and/or dust extinction knowledge. However, there is a definite systematic offset in the mass estimate when the stellar population age is unknown, up to a factor of 2.5 for very old (12 Gyr) stellar populations. We present the stellar masses for our sample, corrected for the measured systematic biases due to photometrically determined ages, finding that age errors produce lower stellar masses by {approx}0.15 dex, with errors of {approx}0.02 dex at the 95% CL for the median stellar age subsample.« less
  • The Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) allows for the first time a highly significant census of environments and structures up to redshift 1, as well as a full morphological description of the galaxy population. In this paper we present a study aimed to constrain the evolution, in the redshift range 0.2 < z < 1.2, of the mass content of different morphological types and its dependence on the environmental density. We use a deep multicolor catalog, covering an area of {approx}0.7 deg{sup 2} inside the COSMOS field, with accurate photometric redshifts (i {approx}< 26.5 and {delta}z/(z {sub spec} + 1) {approx}more » 0.035). We estimate galaxy stellar masses by fitting the multicolor photometry to a grid of composite stellar population models. We quantitatively describe the galaxy morphology by fitting point-spread function convolved Sersic profiles to the galaxy surface brightness distributions down to F814 = 24 mag for a sample of 41,300 objects. We confirm an evolution of the morphological mix with redshift: the higher the redshift the more disk-dominated galaxies become important. We find that the morphological mix is a function of the local comoving density: the morphology density relation extends up to the highest redshift explored. The stellar mass function of disk-dominated galaxies is consistent with being constant with redshift. Conversely, the stellar mass function of bulge-dominated systems shows a decline in normalization with redshift. Such different behaviors of late-types and early-types stellar mass functions naturally set the redshift evolution of the transition mass. We find a population of relatively massive, early-type galaxies, having high specific star formation rate (SSFR) and blue colors which live preferentially in low-density environments. The bulk of massive (>7 x 10{sup 10} M {sub sun}) early-type galaxies have similar characteristic ages, colors, and SSFRs independently of the environment they belong to, with those hosting the oldest stars in the universe preferentially belonging to the highest density regions. The whole catalog including morphological information and stellar mass estimates analyzed in this work is made publicly available.« less
  • A number of recent studies have proposed that the stellar initial mass function (IMF) of early type galaxies varies systematically as a function of galaxy mass, with higher mass galaxies having bottom-heavy IMFs. These bottom-heavy IMFs have more low-mass stars relative to the number of high mass stars, and therefore naturally result in proportionally fewer neutron stars (NSs) and black holes (BHs). In this paper, we specifically predict the variation in the number of BHs and NSs based on the power-law IMF variation required to reproduce the observed mass-to-light ratio trends with galaxy mass. We then test whether such variationsmore » are observed by studying the field low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) populations of nearby early-type galaxies. In these binaries, an NS or BH accretes matter from a low-mass donor star. Their number is therefore expected to scale with the number of BHs and NSs present in a galaxy. We find that the number of LMXBs per K-band light is similar among the galaxies in our sample. These data therefore demonstrate the uniformity of the slope of the IMF from massive stars down to those now dominating the K-band light and are consistent with an invariant IMF. Our results are inconsistent with an IMF which varies from a Kroupa/Chabrier like IMF for low-mass galaxies to a steep power-law IMF (with slope x = 2.8) for high mass galaxies. We discuss how these observations constrain the possible forms of the IMF variations and how future Chandra observations can enable sharper tests of the IMF.« less