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Title: EARLY STAR-FORMING PROCESSES IN DENSE MOLECULAR CLOUD L328; IDENTIFICATION OF L328-IRS AS A PROTO-BROWN DWARF

Abstract

This paper presents the results of millimeter to sub-millimeter observations of CO, HCN, N{sub 2}H{sup +}, and HCO{sup +} lines in the dense molecular cloud L328, which harbors L328-IRS, a Very Low Luminosity Object (VeLLO). Our analysis of the line width finds that {sup 13}CO and N{sub 2}H{sup +} lines are broadened right over the smallest sub-core S2 where L328-IRS is located, while they are significantly narrower in other regions of L328. Thus, L328-IRS has a direct association with the sub-core. CO observations show a bipolar outflow from this VeLLO with an extent of ∼0.08 pc. The outflow momentum flux and efficiency are much less than those of low-mass protostars. The most likely mass accretion rate (∼3.6 × 10{sup –7} M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1}) inferred from the analysis of the CO outflow is an order of magnitude smaller than the canonical value for a protostar. If the main accretion lasts during the typical Class 0 period of a protostar, L328-IRS will accrete the mass of a brown dwarf, but not that of a star. Given that its envelope mass is small (∼0.09 M{sub ☉}) and 100% star formation rate is unlikely, we suggest that L328-IRS is likely a proto-brown dwarf.more » Inward motions are found in global scale in the L328 cloud and its sub-cores with a typical infall speed found in starless cores. L328 is found to be fairly well isolated from other nearby clouds and seems to be forming three sub-cores simultaneously through a gravitational fragmentation process. Altogether, these all leave L328-IRS as the best example supporting the idea that a brown dwarf forms like a normal star.« less

Authors:
; ;  [1]; ;  [2]
  1. Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
  2. National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22270668
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Astrophysical Journal
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 777; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Journal ID: ISSN 0004-637X
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; ASTRONOMY; ASTROPHYSICS; CARBON MONOXIDE; COSMIC GASES; DWARF STARS; EFFICIENCY; HYDROGEN CYANIDES; LINE WIDTHS; LUMINOSITY; MASS; MOLECULAR IONS; PROTOSTARS; VELOCITY

Citation Formats

Lee, Chang Won, Kim, Mi-Ryang, Kim, Gwanjeong, Saito, Masao, Kurono, Yasutaka, and Myers, Philip C., E-mail: cwl@kasi.re.kr. EARLY STAR-FORMING PROCESSES IN DENSE MOLECULAR CLOUD L328; IDENTIFICATION OF L328-IRS AS A PROTO-BROWN DWARF. United States: N. p., 2013. Web. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/777/1/50.
Lee, Chang Won, Kim, Mi-Ryang, Kim, Gwanjeong, Saito, Masao, Kurono, Yasutaka, & Myers, Philip C., E-mail: cwl@kasi.re.kr. EARLY STAR-FORMING PROCESSES IN DENSE MOLECULAR CLOUD L328; IDENTIFICATION OF L328-IRS AS A PROTO-BROWN DWARF. United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/777/1/50.
Lee, Chang Won, Kim, Mi-Ryang, Kim, Gwanjeong, Saito, Masao, Kurono, Yasutaka, and Myers, Philip C., E-mail: cwl@kasi.re.kr. Fri . "EARLY STAR-FORMING PROCESSES IN DENSE MOLECULAR CLOUD L328; IDENTIFICATION OF L328-IRS AS A PROTO-BROWN DWARF". United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/777/1/50.
@article{osti_22270668,
title = {EARLY STAR-FORMING PROCESSES IN DENSE MOLECULAR CLOUD L328; IDENTIFICATION OF L328-IRS AS A PROTO-BROWN DWARF},
author = {Lee, Chang Won and Kim, Mi-Ryang and Kim, Gwanjeong and Saito, Masao and Kurono, Yasutaka and Myers, Philip C., E-mail: cwl@kasi.re.kr},
abstractNote = {This paper presents the results of millimeter to sub-millimeter observations of CO, HCN, N{sub 2}H{sup +}, and HCO{sup +} lines in the dense molecular cloud L328, which harbors L328-IRS, a Very Low Luminosity Object (VeLLO). Our analysis of the line width finds that {sup 13}CO and N{sub 2}H{sup +} lines are broadened right over the smallest sub-core S2 where L328-IRS is located, while they are significantly narrower in other regions of L328. Thus, L328-IRS has a direct association with the sub-core. CO observations show a bipolar outflow from this VeLLO with an extent of ∼0.08 pc. The outflow momentum flux and efficiency are much less than those of low-mass protostars. The most likely mass accretion rate (∼3.6 × 10{sup –7} M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1}) inferred from the analysis of the CO outflow is an order of magnitude smaller than the canonical value for a protostar. If the main accretion lasts during the typical Class 0 period of a protostar, L328-IRS will accrete the mass of a brown dwarf, but not that of a star. Given that its envelope mass is small (∼0.09 M{sub ☉}) and 100% star formation rate is unlikely, we suggest that L328-IRS is likely a proto-brown dwarf. Inward motions are found in global scale in the L328 cloud and its sub-cores with a typical infall speed found in starless cores. L328 is found to be fairly well isolated from other nearby clouds and seems to be forming three sub-cores simultaneously through a gravitational fragmentation process. Altogether, these all leave L328-IRS as the best example supporting the idea that a brown dwarf forms like a normal star.},
doi = {10.1088/0004-637X/777/1/50},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal},
issn = {0004-637X},
number = 1,
volume = 777,
place = {United States},
year = {2013},
month = {11}
}