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Title: Defect formation in Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin films due to the presence of potassium during growth by low temperature co-evaporation process

Abstract

Doping the Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) absorber layer with alkaline metals is necessary to process high efficiency solar cells. When growth of CIGS solar cells is performed on soda-lime glass (SLG), the alkaline elements naturally diffuse from the substrate into the absorber layer. On the other hand, when CIGS is grown on alkaline free substrates, the alkaline metals have to be added from another source. In the past, Na was believed to be the most important dopant of the alkaline elements, even though K was also observed to diffuse into CIGS from the SLG. Recently, the beneficial effect of a post deposition treatment with KF was pointed out and enabled the production of a 20.4% CIGS solar cell grown at low substrate temperature (<500 °C). However, possible negative effects of the presence or addition of the alkaline impurities during the low temperature growth process were observed for Na, but were not investigated for K so far. In this study, we investigate in detail the role of K on the defect formation in CIGS layers deposited at low temperature on alkaline free polyimide with intentional addition of K during selected time intervals of the CIGS layer growth. By means of admittance spectroscopy andmore » deep level transient spectroscopy, we identify a deep minority carrier trap at around 280 meV below the conduction band E{sub C} in CIGS layers grown with K. Its influence on recombination and minority carrier lifetime in the absorber layer is investigated with external quantum efficiency measurements and time-resolved photoluminescence. Furthermore, to support the experimental findings device simulations were performed using the software SCAPS.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. Laboratory for Thin Films and Photovoltaics, Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 129, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22258751
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Journal of Applied Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 114; Journal Issue: 19; Other Information: (c) 2013 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Journal ID: ISSN 0021-8979
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; CARRIER LIFETIME; DEEP LEVEL TRANSIENT SPECTROSCOPY; DEFECTS; EVAPORATION; PHOTOLUMINESCENCE; POTASSIUM; POTASSIUM FLUORIDES; QUANTUM EFFICIENCY; SODIUM CARBONATES; SOLAR CELLS; SUBSTRATES; THIN FILMS; TIME RESOLUTION

Citation Formats

Pianezzi, F., E-mail: fabian.pianezzi@empa.ch, Reinhard, P., Chirilă, A., Nishiwaki, S., Bissig, B., Buecheler, S., and Tiwari, A. N. Defect formation in Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin films due to the presence of potassium during growth by low temperature co-evaporation process. United States: N. p., 2013. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4832781.
Pianezzi, F., E-mail: fabian.pianezzi@empa.ch, Reinhard, P., Chirilă, A., Nishiwaki, S., Bissig, B., Buecheler, S., & Tiwari, A. N. Defect formation in Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin films due to the presence of potassium during growth by low temperature co-evaporation process. United States. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4832781
Pianezzi, F., E-mail: fabian.pianezzi@empa.ch, Reinhard, P., Chirilă, A., Nishiwaki, S., Bissig, B., Buecheler, S., and Tiwari, A. N. Thu . "Defect formation in Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin films due to the presence of potassium during growth by low temperature co-evaporation process". United States. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4832781.
@article{osti_22258751,
title = {Defect formation in Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin films due to the presence of potassium during growth by low temperature co-evaporation process},
author = {Pianezzi, F., E-mail: fabian.pianezzi@empa.ch and Reinhard, P. and Chirilă, A. and Nishiwaki, S. and Bissig, B. and Buecheler, S. and Tiwari, A. N.},
abstractNote = {Doping the Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) absorber layer with alkaline metals is necessary to process high efficiency solar cells. When growth of CIGS solar cells is performed on soda-lime glass (SLG), the alkaline elements naturally diffuse from the substrate into the absorber layer. On the other hand, when CIGS is grown on alkaline free substrates, the alkaline metals have to be added from another source. In the past, Na was believed to be the most important dopant of the alkaline elements, even though K was also observed to diffuse into CIGS from the SLG. Recently, the beneficial effect of a post deposition treatment with KF was pointed out and enabled the production of a 20.4% CIGS solar cell grown at low substrate temperature (<500 °C). However, possible negative effects of the presence or addition of the alkaline impurities during the low temperature growth process were observed for Na, but were not investigated for K so far. In this study, we investigate in detail the role of K on the defect formation in CIGS layers deposited at low temperature on alkaline free polyimide with intentional addition of K during selected time intervals of the CIGS layer growth. By means of admittance spectroscopy and deep level transient spectroscopy, we identify a deep minority carrier trap at around 280 meV below the conduction band E{sub C} in CIGS layers grown with K. Its influence on recombination and minority carrier lifetime in the absorber layer is investigated with external quantum efficiency measurements and time-resolved photoluminescence. Furthermore, to support the experimental findings device simulations were performed using the software SCAPS.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4832781},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22258751}, journal = {Journal of Applied Physics},
issn = {0021-8979},
number = 19,
volume = 114,
place = {United States},
year = {2013},
month = {11}
}