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Title: Optical characteristics of nanocrystalline Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N thin films deposited by hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition

Abstract

Gallium nitride (GaN), aluminum nitride (AlN), and Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N films have been deposited by hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition at 200 °C on c-plane sapphire and Si substrates. The dependence of film structure, absorption edge, and refractive index on postdeposition annealing were examined by x-ray diffraction, spectrophotometry, and spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements, respectively. Well-adhered, uniform, and polycrystalline wurtzite (hexagonal) GaN, AlN, and Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N films were prepared at low deposition temperature. As revealed by the x-ray diffraction analyses, crystallite sizes of the films were between 11.7 and 25.2 nm. The crystallite size of as-deposited GaN film increased from 11.7 to 12.1 and 14.4 nm when the annealing duration increased from 30 min to 2 h (800 °C). For all films, the average optical transmission was ∼85% in the visible (VIS) and near infrared spectrum. The refractive indices of AlN and Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N were lower compared to GaN thin films. The refractive index of as-deposited films decreased from 2.33 to 2.02 (λ = 550 nm) with the increased Al content x (0 ≤ x ≤ 1), while the extinction coefficients (k) were approximately zero in the VIS spectrum (>400 nm). Postdeposition annealing at 900 °C for 2 h considerably lowered the refractive index value of GaN films (2.33–1.92), indicating a significant phase change. Themore » optical bandgap of as-deposited GaN film was found to be 3.95 eV, and it decreased to 3.90 eV for films annealed at 800 °C for 30 min and 2 h. On the other hand, this value increased to 4.1 eV for GaN films annealed at 900 °C for 2 h. This might be caused by Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} formation and following phase change. The optical bandgap value of as-deposited Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N films decreased from 5.75 to 5.25 eV when the x values decreased from 1 to 0.68. Furthermore, postdeposition annealing did not affect the bandgap of Al-rich films.« less

Authors:
 [1]; ;  [2];  [3]
  1. UNAM – National Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey)
  2. Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey)
  3. Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22258571
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology. A, Vacuum, Surfaces and Films
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 32; Journal Issue: 3; Other Information: (c) 2014 American Vacuum Society; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Journal ID: ISSN 0734-2101
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; ABSORPTION; ALUMINIUM NITRIDES; ANNEALING; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; DEPOSITION; ELLIPSOMETRY; GALLIUM NITRIDES; GALLIUM OXIDES; HOLLOW CATHODES; INFRARED SPECTRA; NANOSTRUCTURES; PLASMA; POLYCRYSTALS; REFRACTIVE INDEX; SPECTROPHOTOMETRY; SUBSTRATES; THIN FILMS; X-RAY DIFFRACTION

Citation Formats

Goldenberg, Eda, E-mail: goldenberg@unam.bilkent.edu.tr, Ozgit-Akgun, Cagla, Biyikli, Necmi, and Kemal Okyay, Ali. Optical characteristics of nanocrystalline Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N thin films deposited by hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition. United States: N. p., 2014. Web. doi:10.1116/1.4870381.
Goldenberg, Eda, E-mail: goldenberg@unam.bilkent.edu.tr, Ozgit-Akgun, Cagla, Biyikli, Necmi, & Kemal Okyay, Ali. Optical characteristics of nanocrystalline Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N thin films deposited by hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition. United States. doi:10.1116/1.4870381.
Goldenberg, Eda, E-mail: goldenberg@unam.bilkent.edu.tr, Ozgit-Akgun, Cagla, Biyikli, Necmi, and Kemal Okyay, Ali. Thu . "Optical characteristics of nanocrystalline Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N thin films deposited by hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition". United States. doi:10.1116/1.4870381.
@article{osti_22258571,
title = {Optical characteristics of nanocrystalline Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N thin films deposited by hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition},
author = {Goldenberg, Eda, E-mail: goldenberg@unam.bilkent.edu.tr and Ozgit-Akgun, Cagla and Biyikli, Necmi and Kemal Okyay, Ali},
abstractNote = {Gallium nitride (GaN), aluminum nitride (AlN), and Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N films have been deposited by hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition at 200 °C on c-plane sapphire and Si substrates. The dependence of film structure, absorption edge, and refractive index on postdeposition annealing were examined by x-ray diffraction, spectrophotometry, and spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements, respectively. Well-adhered, uniform, and polycrystalline wurtzite (hexagonal) GaN, AlN, and Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N films were prepared at low deposition temperature. As revealed by the x-ray diffraction analyses, crystallite sizes of the films were between 11.7 and 25.2 nm. The crystallite size of as-deposited GaN film increased from 11.7 to 12.1 and 14.4 nm when the annealing duration increased from 30 min to 2 h (800 °C). For all films, the average optical transmission was ∼85% in the visible (VIS) and near infrared spectrum. The refractive indices of AlN and Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N were lower compared to GaN thin films. The refractive index of as-deposited films decreased from 2.33 to 2.02 (λ = 550 nm) with the increased Al content x (0 ≤ x ≤ 1), while the extinction coefficients (k) were approximately zero in the VIS spectrum (>400 nm). Postdeposition annealing at 900 °C for 2 h considerably lowered the refractive index value of GaN films (2.33–1.92), indicating a significant phase change. The optical bandgap of as-deposited GaN film was found to be 3.95 eV, and it decreased to 3.90 eV for films annealed at 800 °C for 30 min and 2 h. On the other hand, this value increased to 4.1 eV for GaN films annealed at 900 °C for 2 h. This might be caused by Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} formation and following phase change. The optical bandgap value of as-deposited Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N films decreased from 5.75 to 5.25 eV when the x values decreased from 1 to 0.68. Furthermore, postdeposition annealing did not affect the bandgap of Al-rich films.},
doi = {10.1116/1.4870381},
journal = {Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology. A, Vacuum, Surfaces and Films},
issn = {0734-2101},
number = 3,
volume = 32,
place = {United States},
year = {2014},
month = {5}
}