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Title: Brachytherapy structural shielding calculations using Monte Carlo generated, monoenergetic data

Abstract

Purpose: To provide a method for calculating the transmission of any broad photon beam with a known energy spectrum in the range of 20–1090 keV, through concrete and lead, based on the superposition of corresponding monoenergetic data obtained from Monte Carlo simulation. Methods: MCNP5 was used to calculate broad photon beam transmission data through varying thickness of lead and concrete, for monoenergetic point sources of energy in the range pertinent to brachytherapy (20–1090 keV, in 10 keV intervals). The three parameter empirical model introduced byArcher et al. [“Diagnostic x-ray shielding design based on an empirical model of photon attenuation,” Health Phys. 44, 507–517 (1983)] was used to describe the transmission curve for each of the 216 energy-material combinations. These three parameters, and hence the transmission curve, for any polyenergetic spectrum can then be obtained by superposition along the lines of Kharrati et al. [“Monte Carlo simulation of x-ray buildup factors of lead and its applications in shielding of diagnostic x-ray facilities,” Med. Phys. 34, 1398–1404 (2007)]. A simple program, incorporating a graphical user interface, was developed to facilitate the superposition of monoenergetic data, the graphical and tabular display of broad photon beam transmission curves, and the calculation of material thicknessmore » required for a given transmission from these curves. Results: Polyenergetic broad photon beam transmission curves of this work, calculated from the superposition of monoenergetic data, are compared to corresponding results in the literature. A good agreement is observed with results in the literature obtained from Monte Carlo simulations for the photon spectra emitted from bare point sources of various radionuclides. Differences are observed with corresponding results in the literature for x-ray spectra at various tube potentials, mainly due to the different broad beam conditions or x-ray spectra assumed. Conclusions: The data of this work allow for the accurate calculation of structural shielding thickness, taking into account the spectral variation with shield thickness, and broad beam conditions, in a realistic geometry. The simplicity of calculations also obviates the need for the use of crude transmission data estimates such as the half and tenth value layer indices. Although this study was primarily designed for brachytherapy, results might also be useful for radiology and nuclear medicine facility design, provided broad beam conditions apply.« less

Authors:
; ;  [1];  [2];  [3]
  1. Medical Physics Laboratory, Medical School, University of Athens, 75 Mikras Asias, 11527 Athens (Greece)
  2. Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics, University of Valencia, Burjassot 46100 (Spain)
  3. Clinic of Radiotherapy, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel 24105 (Germany)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22250841
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 41; Journal Issue: 4; Other Information: (c) 2014 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; 62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; BRACHYTHERAPY; COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION; DATA TRANSMISSION; ENERGY SPECTRA; MONTE CARLO METHOD; PHOTON BEAMS; POINT SOURCES; SHIELDING; THICKNESS; X-RAY SPECTRA

Citation Formats

Zourari, K., Peppa, V., Papagiannis, P., E-mail: ppapagi@phys.uoa.gr, Ballester, Facundo, and Siebert, Frank-André. Brachytherapy structural shielding calculations using Monte Carlo generated, monoenergetic data. United States: N. p., 2014. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4868456.
Zourari, K., Peppa, V., Papagiannis, P., E-mail: ppapagi@phys.uoa.gr, Ballester, Facundo, & Siebert, Frank-André. Brachytherapy structural shielding calculations using Monte Carlo generated, monoenergetic data. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4868456.
Zourari, K., Peppa, V., Papagiannis, P., E-mail: ppapagi@phys.uoa.gr, Ballester, Facundo, and Siebert, Frank-André. Tue . "Brachytherapy structural shielding calculations using Monte Carlo generated, monoenergetic data". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4868456.
@article{osti_22250841,
title = {Brachytherapy structural shielding calculations using Monte Carlo generated, monoenergetic data},
author = {Zourari, K. and Peppa, V. and Papagiannis, P., E-mail: ppapagi@phys.uoa.gr and Ballester, Facundo and Siebert, Frank-André},
abstractNote = {Purpose: To provide a method for calculating the transmission of any broad photon beam with a known energy spectrum in the range of 20–1090 keV, through concrete and lead, based on the superposition of corresponding monoenergetic data obtained from Monte Carlo simulation. Methods: MCNP5 was used to calculate broad photon beam transmission data through varying thickness of lead and concrete, for monoenergetic point sources of energy in the range pertinent to brachytherapy (20–1090 keV, in 10 keV intervals). The three parameter empirical model introduced byArcher et al. [“Diagnostic x-ray shielding design based on an empirical model of photon attenuation,” Health Phys. 44, 507–517 (1983)] was used to describe the transmission curve for each of the 216 energy-material combinations. These three parameters, and hence the transmission curve, for any polyenergetic spectrum can then be obtained by superposition along the lines of Kharrati et al. [“Monte Carlo simulation of x-ray buildup factors of lead and its applications in shielding of diagnostic x-ray facilities,” Med. Phys. 34, 1398–1404 (2007)]. A simple program, incorporating a graphical user interface, was developed to facilitate the superposition of monoenergetic data, the graphical and tabular display of broad photon beam transmission curves, and the calculation of material thickness required for a given transmission from these curves. Results: Polyenergetic broad photon beam transmission curves of this work, calculated from the superposition of monoenergetic data, are compared to corresponding results in the literature. A good agreement is observed with results in the literature obtained from Monte Carlo simulations for the photon spectra emitted from bare point sources of various radionuclides. Differences are observed with corresponding results in the literature for x-ray spectra at various tube potentials, mainly due to the different broad beam conditions or x-ray spectra assumed. Conclusions: The data of this work allow for the accurate calculation of structural shielding thickness, taking into account the spectral variation with shield thickness, and broad beam conditions, in a realistic geometry. The simplicity of calculations also obviates the need for the use of crude transmission data estimates such as the half and tenth value layer indices. Although this study was primarily designed for brachytherapy, results might also be useful for radiology and nuclear medicine facility design, provided broad beam conditions apply.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4868456},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 4,
volume = 41,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Apr 15 00:00:00 EDT 2014},
month = {Tue Apr 15 00:00:00 EDT 2014}
}
  • Although the Monte Carlo method is considered to be the most accurate method available for solving radiation transport problems, its applicability is limited by its computational expense. Thus, biasing techniques, which require intuition, guesswork, and iterations involving manual adjustments, are employed to make reactor shielding calculations feasible. To overcome this difficulty, the authors have developed a method for using the S{sub N} adjoint function for automated variance reduction of Monte Carlo calculations through source biasing and consistent transport biasing with the weight window technique. They describe the implementation of this method into the standard production Monte Carlo code MCNP andmore » its application to a realistic calculation, namely, the reactor cavity dosimetry calculation. The computational effectiveness of the method, as demonstrated through the increase in calculational efficiency, is demonstrated and quantified. Important issues associated with this method and its efficient use are addressed and analyzed. Additional benefits in terms of the reduction in time and effort required of the user are difficult to quantify but are possibly as important as the computational efficiency. In general, the automated variance reduction method presented is capable of increases in computational performance on the order of thousands, while at the same time significantly reducing the current requirements for user experience, time, and effort. Therefore, this method can substantially increase the applicability and reliability of Monte Carlo for large, real-world shielding applications.« less
  • The role of the event-value and the point-value functions in importance sampling is clearly defined. A biasing technique that alters the transport kernel using the event-value function is developed. This path-length biasing technique is demonstrated by application to a deep penetration shielding problem. The results indicate a substantial reduction in computational cost over the standard exponential transform or adjoint flux biasing of the collision site selection.
  • Purpose: In this study we present Monte Carlo based evaluation of the shielding effect for secondary neutrons from patient collimator, and secondary photons emitted in the process of neutron shielding by combination of moderator and boron-10 placed around patient collimator. Methods: The PHITS Monte Carlo Simulation radiation transport code was used to simulate the proton beam (Ep = 64 to 93 MeV) from a proton therapy facility. In this study, moderators (water, polyethylene and paraffin) and boron (pure {sup 10}B) were placed around patient collimator in this order. The rate of moderator and boron thicknesses was changed fixing the totalmore » thickness at 3cm. The secondary neutron and photons doses were evaluated as the ambient dose equivalent per absorbed dose [H*(10)/D]. Results: The secondary neutrons are shielded more effectively by combination moderators and boron. The most effective combination of shielding neutrons is the polyethylene of 2.4 cm thick and the boron of 0.6 cm thick and the maximum reduction rate is 47.3 %. The H*(10)/D of secondary photons in the control case is less than that of neutrons by two orders of magnitude and the maximum increase of secondary photons is 1.0 µSv/Gy with the polyethylene of 2.8 cm thick and the boron of 0.2 cm thick. Conclusion: The combination of moderators and boron is beneficial for shielding secondary neutrons. Both the secondary photons of control and those emitted in the shielding neutrons are very lower than the secondary neutrons and photon has low RBE in comparison with neutron. Therefore the secondary photons can be ignored in the shielding neutrons.This work was supported by JSPS Core-to-Core Program (No.23003). This work was supported by JSPS Core-to-Core Program (No.23003)« less
  • A Monte Carlo-based treatment planning code for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), called NCTPLAN, has been developed in support of the New England Medical Center-Massachusetts Institute of Technology program in BNCT. This code has been used to plan BNCT irradiations in an ongoing peripheral melanoma BNCT protocol. The concept and design of the code is described and illustrative applications are presented. 32 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.
  • Certain brachytherapy dose distributions, such as those for LDR prostate implants, are readily modeled by treatment planning systems (TPS) that use the superposition principle of individual seed dose distributions to calculate the total dose distribution. However, dose distributions for brachytherapy treatments using high-Z shields or having significant material heterogeneities are not currently well modeled using conventional TPS. The purpose of this study is to establish a new treatment planning technique (Tufts technique) that could be applied in some clinical situations where the conventional approach is not acceptable and dose distributions present cylindrical symmetry. Dose distributions from complex brachytherapy source configurationsmore » determined with Monte Carlo methods were used as input data. These source distributions included the 2 and 3 cm diameter Valencia skin applicators from Nucletron, 4-8 cm diameter AccuBoost peripheral breast brachytherapy applicators from Advanced Radiation Therapy, and a 16 mm COMS-based eye plaque using {sup 103}Pd, {sup 125}I, and {sup 131}Cs seeds. Radial dose functions and 2D anisotropy functions were obtained by positioning the coordinate system origin along the dose distribution cylindrical axis of symmetry. Origin:tissue distance and active length were chosen to minimize TPS interpolation errors. Dosimetry parameters were entered into the PINNACLE TPS, and dose distributions were subsequently calculated and compared to the original Monte Carlo-derived dose distributions. The new planning technique was able to reproduce brachytherapy dose distributions for all three applicator types, producing dosimetric agreement typically within 2% when compared with Monte Carlo-derived dose distributions. Agreement between Monte Carlo-derived and planned dose distributions improved as the spatial resolution of the fitted dosimetry parameters improved. For agreement within 5% throughout the clinical volume, spatial resolution of dosimetry parameter data {<=}0.1 cm was required, and the virtual brachytherapy source data set included over 5000 data points. On the other hand, the lack of consideration for applicator heterogeneity effect caused conventional dose overestimates exceeding an order of magnitude in regions of clinical interest. This approach is rationalized by the improved dose estimates. In conclusion, a new technique was developed to incorporate complex Monte Carlo-based brachytherapy dose distributions into conventional TPS. These results are generalizable to other brachytherapy source types and other TPS.« less