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Title: 4D tumor centroid tracking using orthogonal 2D dynamic MRI: Implications for radiotherapy planning

Abstract

Purpose: Current pretreatment, 4D imaging techniques are suboptimal in that they sample breathing motion over a very limited “snapshot” in time. Heretofore, long-duration, 4D motion characterization for radiotherapy planning, margin optimization, and validation have been impractical for safety reasons, requiring invasive markers imaged under x-ray fluoroscopy. To characterize 3D tumor motion and associated variability over durations more consistent with treatments, the authors have developed a practical dynamic MRI (dMRI) technique employing two orthogonal planes acquired in a continuous, interleaved fashion.Methods: 2D balanced steady-state free precession MRI was acquired continuously over 9–14 min at approximately 4 Hz in three healthy volunteers using a commercial 1.5 T system; alternating orthogonal imaging planes (sagittal, coronal, sagittal, etc.) were employed. The 2D in-plane pixel resolution was 2 × 2 mm{sup 2} with a 5 mm slice profile. Simultaneous with image acquisition, the authors monitored a 1D surrogate respiratory signal using a device available with the MRI system. 2D template matching-based anatomic feature registration, or tracking, was performed independently in each orientation. 4D feature tracking at the raw frame rate was derived using spline interpolation.Results: Tracking vascular features in the lung for two volunteers and pancreatic features in one volunteer, the authors have successfully demonstratedmore » this method. Registration error, defined here as the difference between the sagittal and coronal tracking result in the SI direction, ranged from 0.7 to 1.6 mm (1σ) which was less than the acquired image resolution. Although the healthy volunteers were instructed to relax and breathe normally, significantly variable respiration was observed. To demonstrate potential applications of this technique, the authors subsequently explored the intrafraction stability of hypothetical tumoral internal target volumes and 3D spatial probability distribution functions. The surrogate respiratory information allowed the authors to show how this technique can be used to study correlations between internal and external (surrogate) information over these prolonged durations. However, compared against the gold standard of the time stamps in the dMRI frames, the temporal synchronization of the surrogate 1D respiratory information was shown to be likely unreliable.Conclusions: The authors have established viability of a novel and practical pretreatment, 4D tumor centroid tracking method employing a commercially available dynamic MRI sequence. Further developments from the vendor are likely needed to provide a reliably synchronized surrogate 1D respiratory signal, which will likely broaden the utility of this method in the pretreatment radiotherapy planning context.« less

Authors:
 [1]; ;  [2]; ; ; ; ; ;  [3]
  1. Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21231 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States)
  2. Center for Applied Medical Imaging, Siemens Corporation, Corporate Technology, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 (United States)
  3. Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21231 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22230768
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 40; Journal Issue: 9; Other Information: (c) 2013 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONS; ELECTRIC UTILITIES; FLUOROSCOPY; IMAGE PROCESSING; IMAGES; INTERPOLATION; LUNGS; NEOPLASMS; NMR IMAGING; PANCREAS; RADIOTHERAPY; RESPIRATION

Citation Formats

Tryggestad, Erik, Flammang, Aaron, Shea, Steven M., Hales, Russell, Herman, Joseph, Lee, Junghoon, McNutt, Todd, Roland, Teboh, and Wong, John. 4D tumor centroid tracking using orthogonal 2D dynamic MRI: Implications for radiotherapy planning. United States: N. p., 2013. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4818656.
Tryggestad, Erik, Flammang, Aaron, Shea, Steven M., Hales, Russell, Herman, Joseph, Lee, Junghoon, McNutt, Todd, Roland, Teboh, & Wong, John. 4D tumor centroid tracking using orthogonal 2D dynamic MRI: Implications for radiotherapy planning. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4818656.
Tryggestad, Erik, Flammang, Aaron, Shea, Steven M., Hales, Russell, Herman, Joseph, Lee, Junghoon, McNutt, Todd, Roland, Teboh, and Wong, John. 2013. "4D tumor centroid tracking using orthogonal 2D dynamic MRI: Implications for radiotherapy planning". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4818656.
@article{osti_22230768,
title = {4D tumor centroid tracking using orthogonal 2D dynamic MRI: Implications for radiotherapy planning},
author = {Tryggestad, Erik and Flammang, Aaron and Shea, Steven M. and Hales, Russell and Herman, Joseph and Lee, Junghoon and McNutt, Todd and Roland, Teboh and Wong, John},
abstractNote = {Purpose: Current pretreatment, 4D imaging techniques are suboptimal in that they sample breathing motion over a very limited “snapshot” in time. Heretofore, long-duration, 4D motion characterization for radiotherapy planning, margin optimization, and validation have been impractical for safety reasons, requiring invasive markers imaged under x-ray fluoroscopy. To characterize 3D tumor motion and associated variability over durations more consistent with treatments, the authors have developed a practical dynamic MRI (dMRI) technique employing two orthogonal planes acquired in a continuous, interleaved fashion.Methods: 2D balanced steady-state free precession MRI was acquired continuously over 9–14 min at approximately 4 Hz in three healthy volunteers using a commercial 1.5 T system; alternating orthogonal imaging planes (sagittal, coronal, sagittal, etc.) were employed. The 2D in-plane pixel resolution was 2 × 2 mm{sup 2} with a 5 mm slice profile. Simultaneous with image acquisition, the authors monitored a 1D surrogate respiratory signal using a device available with the MRI system. 2D template matching-based anatomic feature registration, or tracking, was performed independently in each orientation. 4D feature tracking at the raw frame rate was derived using spline interpolation.Results: Tracking vascular features in the lung for two volunteers and pancreatic features in one volunteer, the authors have successfully demonstrated this method. Registration error, defined here as the difference between the sagittal and coronal tracking result in the SI direction, ranged from 0.7 to 1.6 mm (1σ) which was less than the acquired image resolution. Although the healthy volunteers were instructed to relax and breathe normally, significantly variable respiration was observed. To demonstrate potential applications of this technique, the authors subsequently explored the intrafraction stability of hypothetical tumoral internal target volumes and 3D spatial probability distribution functions. The surrogate respiratory information allowed the authors to show how this technique can be used to study correlations between internal and external (surrogate) information over these prolonged durations. However, compared against the gold standard of the time stamps in the dMRI frames, the temporal synchronization of the surrogate 1D respiratory information was shown to be likely unreliable.Conclusions: The authors have established viability of a novel and practical pretreatment, 4D tumor centroid tracking method employing a commercially available dynamic MRI sequence. Further developments from the vendor are likely needed to provide a reliably synchronized surrogate 1D respiratory signal, which will likely broaden the utility of this method in the pretreatment radiotherapy planning context.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4818656},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 9,
volume = 40,
place = {United States},
year = 2013,
month = 9
}
  • Purpose: To develop a four-dimensional intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) planning method for dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC)-based tumor tracking that takes respiratory motion into consideration. Methods and Materials: Using the concept of optimal deformation, a series of apertures are placed at different phases in the same segment to ensure maximally similar dose contributions at various anatomic points. We used a direct aperture optimization method to find a set of segments that achieved an optimal dose distribution for aperture shapes at the reference phase and achieved corresponding optimal deformations at other phases that took respiratory motion into consideration. In our four-dimensional direct aperturemore » optimization (4D-DAO) method, a simulated annealing algorithm and a conjugate gradients algorithm were used to optimize the shape of the segments and the monitor units, respectively. We then compared the optimization results for three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and 4D-DAO based on a set of simulated respiration 4D computed tomography (4DCT) data and a set of real 4DCT data. Results: Dosimetric analysis indicated that, compared with the 3DCRT method, the dose distribution is significantly improved when the optimal deformation tracking technique is used, even when the maximum velocity limit of the DMLC leaves is set. Conclusions: The proposed 4D-IMRT planning method can find a set of segments and the corresponding leaf movements, which can trace the tumor motion and thus protect more normal tissue from radiation.« less
  • Purpose: The objective of this study was to evaluate the necessity to account for the organs at risk (OARs) respiratory induced motion in addition to the tumor displacement when planning a radiotherapy treatment that accounts for tumor motion. Methods: For 18 lung cancer patients, conformational radiotherapy treatment plans were generated using 3 different CT volumes: the two extreme respiratory phases corresponding to either the full inspiration (plan 1) or expiration (plan 3), as well as a manually deformed phase consisting in full inspiration combined with the full expiration tumor location (plan 2) simulating a tumor tracking plan without addressing OARsmore » motion. Treatment plans were initially created on plan 1 and then transferred to plan 2 and 3 which represent respectively the tumor displacement only and the whole anatomic variations due to breathing. The dose coverage and the dose delivered to the OARs were compared using conformational indexes and generalized equivalent uniform dose. Results: The worst conformational indexes were obtained for plans with all anatomic deformations (Table 1) with an underestimation of the 95% isodose spreading on healthy tissue compared to plans considering the tumor displacement only. Furthermore, mean doses to the OARs when accounting for all the anatomic changes were always higher than those associated with the tumor displacement only: the mean difference between these two plans was 1±1.37 Gy (maximum of 3.8 Gy) for the heart and 1.4±1.42 Gy (maximum of 4.1 Gy) for the lung in which the tumor was located (Figure 1). Conclusion: OARs deformations due to breathing motion should be included in the treatment planning in order to avoid unnecessary OARs dose and/or allow for a tumor dose escalation. This is even more important for treatments like stereotactic radiation therapy which necessitates a high precision ballistic and dose control.« less
  • Purpose: The new real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy (RTRT) system was installed in our institution. This system consists of two x-ray tubes and color image intensifiers (I.I.s). The fiducial marker which was implanted near the tumor was tracked using color fluoroscopic images. However, the implantation of the fiducial marker is very invasive. Color fluoroscopic images enable to increase the recognition of the tumor. However, these images were not suitable to track the tumor without fiducial marker. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of markerless tracking using dual energy colored fluoroscopic images for real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy system. Methods: Themore » colored fluoroscopic images of static and moving phantom that had the simulated tumor (30 mm diameter sphere) were experimentally acquired using the RTRT system. The programmable respiratory motion phantom was driven using the sinusoidal pattern in cranio-caudal direction (Amplitude: 20 mm, Time: 4 s). The x-ray condition was set to 55 kV, 50 mA and 105 kV, 50 mA for low energy and high energy, respectively. Dual energy images were calculated based on the weighted logarithmic subtraction of high and low energy images of RGB images. The usefulness of dual energy imaging for real-time tracking with an automated template image matching algorithm was investigated. Results: Our proposed dual energy subtraction improve the contrast between tumor and background to suppress the bone structure. For static phantom, our results showed that high tracking accuracy using dual energy subtraction images. For moving phantom, our results showed that good tracking accuracy using dual energy subtraction images. However, tracking accuracy was dependent on tumor position, tumor size and x-ray conditions. Conclusion: We indicated that feasibility of markerless tracking using dual energy fluoroscopic images for real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy system. Furthermore, it is needed to investigate the tracking accuracy using proposed dual energy subtraction images for clinical cases.« less
  • Purpose: We aim to achieve new four-dimensional radiotherapy (4DRT) using the next generation real-time tumor-tracking (RTRT) system and flattening-filter-free techniques. To achieve new 4DRT, it is necessary to understand the respiratory motion of tumor. The purposes of this study were: 1.To develop the respiratory motion analysis tool using log files. 2.To evaluate the reproducibility of tumor motion probability distribution function (PDF) during stereotactic body RT (SBRT) of lung tumor. Methods: Seven patients having fiducial markers closely implanted to the lung tumor were enrolled in this study. The positions of fiducial markers were measured using the RTRT system (Mitsubishi Electronics Co.,more » JP) and recorded as two types of log files during the course of SBRT. For each patients, tumor motion range and tumor motion PDFs in left-right (LR), anterior-posterior (AP) and superior-inferior (SI) directions were calculated using log files of all beams per fraction (PDFn). Fractional PDF reproducibility (Rn) was calculated as Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence between PDF1 and PDFn of tumor motion. The mean of Rn (Rm) was calculated for each patient and correlated to the patient’s mean tumor motion range (Am). The change of Rm during the course of SBRT was also evluated. These analyses were performed using in-house developed software. Results: The Rm were 0.19 (0.07–0.30), 0.14 (0.07–0.32) and 0.16 (0.09–0.28) in LR, AP and SI directions, respectively. The Am were 5.11 mm (2.58–9.99 mm), 7.81 mm (2.87–15.57 mm) and 11.26 mm (3.80–21.27 mm) in LR, AP and SI directions, respectively. The PDF reproducibility decreased as the tumor motion range increased in AP and SI direction. That decreased slightly through the course of RT in SI direction. Conclusion: We developed the respiratory motion analysis tool for 4DRT using log files and quantified the range and reproducibility of respiratory motion for lung tumors.« less
  • Purpose: To assess the clinical outcome of intercepting radiotherapy, in which radiotherapy is delivered only when a tumor in motion enters a target area, using a real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy (RTRT) system for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who were untreatable with other modalities because the tumors were adjacent to crucial organs or located too deep beneath the skin surface. Methods and Materials: Eighteen tumors, with a mean diameter of 36 mm, were studied in 15 patients. All tumors were treated on a hypofractionated schedule with a tight margin for setup and organ motion using a 2.0-mm fiducial marker in the livermore » and the RTRT system. The most commonly used dose of radiotherapy was 48 Gy in 8 fractions. Sixteen lesions were treated with a BED{sub 10} of 60 Gy or more (median, 76.8 Gy). Results: With a mean follow-up period of 20 months (range, 3-57 months), the overall survival rate was 39% at 2 years after RTRT. The 2-year local control rate was 83% for initial RTRT but was 92% after allowance for reirradiation using RTRT, with a Grade 3 transient gastric ulcer in 1 patient and Grade 3 transient increases of aspartate amino transaminase in 2 patients. Conclusions: Intercepting radiotherapy using RTRT provided effective focal high doses to liver tumors. Because the fiducial markers for RTRT need not be implanted into the tumor itself, RTRT can be applied to hepatocellular carcinoma in patients who are not candidates for other surgical or nonsurgical treatments.« less