skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Chemopreventive activity of compounds extracted from Casearia sylvestris (Salicaceae) Sw against DNA damage induced by particulate matter emitted by sugarcane burning near Araraquara, Brazil

Abstract

Ethanolic extract of Casearia sylvestris is thought to be antimutagenic. In this study, we attempted to determine whether this extract and casearin X (a clerodane diterpene from C. sylvestris) are protective against the harmful effects of airborne pollutants from sugarcane burning. To that end, we used the Tradescantia micronucleus test in meiotic pollen cells of Tradescantia pallida, the micronucleus test in mouse bone marrow cells, and the comet assay in mouse blood cells. The mutagenic compound was total suspended particulate (TSP) from air. For the Tradescantia micronucleus test, T. pallida cuttings were treated with the extract at 0.13, 0.25, or 0.50 mg/ml. Subsequently, TSP was added at 0.3 mg/ml, and tetrads from the inflorescences were examined for micronuclei. For the micronucleus test in mouse bone marrow cells and the comet assay in mouse blood cells, Balb/c mice were treated for 15 days with the extract—3.9, 7.5, or 15.0 mg/kg body weight (BW)—or with casearin X—0.3, 0.25, or 1.2 mg/kg BW—after which they received TSP (3.75 mg/kg BW). In T. pallida and mouse bone marrow cells, the extract was antimutagenic at all concentrations tested. In mouse blood cells, the extract was antigenotoxic at all concentrations, whereas casearin X was not antimutagenicmore » but was antigenotoxic at all concentrations. We conclude that C. sylvestris ethanolic extract and casearin X protect DNA from damage induced by airborne pollutants from sugarcane burning. -- Highlights: ► We assessed DNA protection of C. sylvestris ethanolic extract. ► We assessed DNA protection of casearin X. ► We used Tradescantia pallida micronucleus test as screening. ► We used comet assay and micronucleus test in mice. ► The compounds protected DNA against sugar cane burning pollutants.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2]; ; ;  [1];  [3]; ;  [4]; ; ;  [5];  [1]
  1. UNESP — Univ. Estadual Paulista, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Clinical Analysis, Rua Expedicionários do Brasil, 1621, Araraquara (Brazil)
  2. UNESP — Univ. Estadual Paulista, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Natural Principles and Toxicology, Rodovia Araraquara-Jau, km 01, Araraquara (Brazil)
  3. UNIFESP — Federal University of São Paulo, Paulista College of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Rua Pedro de Toledo, 720, São Paulo (Brazil)
  4. UNESP — Univ. Estadual Paulista, Chemistry Institute, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Rua Francisco Degni, S/N, Araraquara (Brazil)
  5. UNESP — Univ. Estadual Paulista, Chemistry Institute, Department of Organic Chemistry, Rua Francisco Degni, S/N, Araraquara (Brazil)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22216008
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology; Journal Volume: 265; Journal Issue: 3; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2012 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; BONE MARROW CELLS; BRAZIL; CONCENTRATION RATIO; DNA; DNA DAMAGES; ERYTHROCYTES; METHANOL; METHYLENE CHLORIDE; MICE; POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS; SUGAR CANE; TOTAL SUSPENDED PARTICULATES; TRADESCANTIA

Citation Formats

Prieto, A.M., Santos, A.G., Csipak, A.R., Caliri, C.M., Silva, I.C., Arbex, M.A., Silva, F.S., Marchi, M.R.R., Cavalheiro, A.J., Silva, D.H.S., Bolzani, V.S., and Soares, C.P., E-mail: soarescp@hotmail.com. Chemopreventive activity of compounds extracted from Casearia sylvestris (Salicaceae) Sw against DNA damage induced by particulate matter emitted by sugarcane burning near Araraquara, Brazil. United States: N. p., 2012. Web. doi:10.1016/J.TAAP.2012.09.005.
Prieto, A.M., Santos, A.G., Csipak, A.R., Caliri, C.M., Silva, I.C., Arbex, M.A., Silva, F.S., Marchi, M.R.R., Cavalheiro, A.J., Silva, D.H.S., Bolzani, V.S., & Soares, C.P., E-mail: soarescp@hotmail.com. Chemopreventive activity of compounds extracted from Casearia sylvestris (Salicaceae) Sw against DNA damage induced by particulate matter emitted by sugarcane burning near Araraquara, Brazil. United States. doi:10.1016/J.TAAP.2012.09.005.
Prieto, A.M., Santos, A.G., Csipak, A.R., Caliri, C.M., Silva, I.C., Arbex, M.A., Silva, F.S., Marchi, M.R.R., Cavalheiro, A.J., Silva, D.H.S., Bolzani, V.S., and Soares, C.P., E-mail: soarescp@hotmail.com. 2012. "Chemopreventive activity of compounds extracted from Casearia sylvestris (Salicaceae) Sw against DNA damage induced by particulate matter emitted by sugarcane burning near Araraquara, Brazil". United States. doi:10.1016/J.TAAP.2012.09.005.
@article{osti_22216008,
title = {Chemopreventive activity of compounds extracted from Casearia sylvestris (Salicaceae) Sw against DNA damage induced by particulate matter emitted by sugarcane burning near Araraquara, Brazil},
author = {Prieto, A.M. and Santos, A.G. and Csipak, A.R. and Caliri, C.M. and Silva, I.C. and Arbex, M.A. and Silva, F.S. and Marchi, M.R.R. and Cavalheiro, A.J. and Silva, D.H.S. and Bolzani, V.S. and Soares, C.P., E-mail: soarescp@hotmail.com},
abstractNote = {Ethanolic extract of Casearia sylvestris is thought to be antimutagenic. In this study, we attempted to determine whether this extract and casearin X (a clerodane diterpene from C. sylvestris) are protective against the harmful effects of airborne pollutants from sugarcane burning. To that end, we used the Tradescantia micronucleus test in meiotic pollen cells of Tradescantia pallida, the micronucleus test in mouse bone marrow cells, and the comet assay in mouse blood cells. The mutagenic compound was total suspended particulate (TSP) from air. For the Tradescantia micronucleus test, T. pallida cuttings were treated with the extract at 0.13, 0.25, or 0.50 mg/ml. Subsequently, TSP was added at 0.3 mg/ml, and tetrads from the inflorescences were examined for micronuclei. For the micronucleus test in mouse bone marrow cells and the comet assay in mouse blood cells, Balb/c mice were treated for 15 days with the extract—3.9, 7.5, or 15.0 mg/kg body weight (BW)—or with casearin X—0.3, 0.25, or 1.2 mg/kg BW—after which they received TSP (3.75 mg/kg BW). In T. pallida and mouse bone marrow cells, the extract was antimutagenic at all concentrations tested. In mouse blood cells, the extract was antigenotoxic at all concentrations, whereas casearin X was not antimutagenic but was antigenotoxic at all concentrations. We conclude that C. sylvestris ethanolic extract and casearin X protect DNA from damage induced by airborne pollutants from sugarcane burning. -- Highlights: ► We assessed DNA protection of C. sylvestris ethanolic extract. ► We assessed DNA protection of casearin X. ► We used Tradescantia pallida micronucleus test as screening. ► We used comet assay and micronucleus test in mice. ► The compounds protected DNA against sugar cane burning pollutants.},
doi = {10.1016/J.TAAP.2012.09.005},
journal = {Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology},
number = 3,
volume = 265,
place = {United States},
year = 2012,
month =
}
  • A dilution source sampling system is augmented to measure the size-distributed chemical composition of fine particle emissions from air pollution sources. Measurements are made using a laser optical particle counter (OPC), a differential mobility analyzer/condensation nucleus counter (DMA/CNC) combination, and a pair of microorifice uniform deposit impactors (MOUDIs). The sources tested with this system include wood smoke (pine, oak, eucalyptus), meat charbroiling, and cigarettes. The particle mass distributions from all wood smoke sources have a single mode that peaks at approximately 0.1--0.2 {micro}m particle diameter. The smoke from meat charbroiling shows a major peak in the particle mass distribution atmore » 0.1--0.2 {micro}m particle diameter, with some material present at larger particle sizes. Particle mass distributions from cigarettes peak between 0.3 and 0.4 {micro}m particle diameter. Chemical composition analysis reveals that particles emitted from the sources tested here are largely composed of organic compounds. Noticeable concentrations of elemental carbon are found in the particles emitted from wood burning. The size distributions of the trace species emissions from these sources also are presented, including data for Na, K, Ti, Fe, Br, Ru, Cl, Al, Zn, Ba, Sr, V, Mn, Sb, La, Ce, as well as sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium ion when present in statistically significant amounts. These data are intended for use with air quality models that seek to predict the size distribution of the chemical composition of atmospheric fine particles.« less
  • The chemopreventive activity of the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) tributyrin (TB), a prodrug of butyric acid (BA), was evaluated in a rat model of colon carcinogenesis. The animals were treated with TB (TB group: 200 mg/100 g of body weight, b.w.) or maltodextrin (MD isocaloric control group: 300 mg/100 g b.w.) daily for 9 consecutive weeks. In the 3rd and 4th weeks of treatment, the rats in the TB and MD groups were given DMH (40 mg/kg b.w.) twice a week. After 9 weeks, the animals were euthanized, and the distal colon was examined. Compared with the control group (MDmore » group), TB treatment reduced the total number of aberrant crypt foci (ACF; p < 0.05) as well as the ACF with ≥ 4 crypts (p < 0.05), which are considered more aggressive, but not inhibited the formation of DMH-induced O6-methyldeoxyguanosine DNA adducts. The TB group also showed a higher apoptotic index (p < 0.05) and reduced DNA damage (p < 0.05) compared with MD group. TB acted as a HDACi, as rats treated with the prodrug of BA had higher levels of histone H3K9 acetylation compared with the MD group (p < 0.05). TB administration resulted in increased colonic tissue concentrations of BA (p < 0.05) compared with the control animals. These results suggest that TB can be considered a promising chemopreventive agent for colon carcinogenesis because it reduced the number of ACF, including those that were more aggressive. Induction of apoptosis and reduction of DNA damage are cellular mechanisms that appear to be involved in the chemopreventive activity of TB. - Highlights: • Tributyrin is a chemopreventive agent for rat colon aberrant crypt foci. • Tributyrin increased apoptosis in an experimental rat colon carcinogenesis model. • Tributyrin treatment in a rat colon carcinogenesis model decreased DNA damage. • Tributyrin treatment induced H3K9 acetylation in a rat colon carcinogenesis model.« less
  • The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and the organic matter (OM) content associated with particulate matter (PM) emissions from atmospheric fluidized bed coal combustion have been studied. The two main aims of the work have been (a) to study OM and PAH emissions as a function of the coal fluidized bed combustion (FBC) variables in solid phase and (b) to check if there is any correlation between OM and PAH contained in the PM. The combustion was carried out in a laboratory scale plant at different combustion conditions: temperature, percentage of oxygen excess, and total air flow. PAH associated on themore » particulate matter have been analyzed by fluorescence spectroscopy in the synchronous mode (FS) after PM extraction by sonication with dimethylformamide (DMF). It can be concluded that there is not a direct relationship between the OM content and the PAH supported in the PM emitted. In addition, neither PM or OM show dependence between themselves.« less
  • A high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for determining the concentration of trace amounts of benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) in particulate matter from combustion of forest fuels was validated. Particulate matter was prepared for analysis by a small-scale (1 mg), simplified preparation followed by HPLC with fluorescence detection. The chromatographic system had a limit of detection of 2.67 ng/mL, a precision of 6.4% relative standard deviation, and a working range of 2.67 to 100 ng/mL. The complete method gave a mean recovery of 100.6% across its working range with an 8.3% relative standard deviation. With National Bureau of Standards' Standard Reference Materialmore » 1649 (urban particulate matter), a mean recovery of 93.2% of the certified B(a)P content was obtained with a 9.9% relative standard deviation. After storing loaded filters for 4 months under refrigeration, the B(a)P content of the particulate matter from forest fire smoke had not significantly changed.« less