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Title: Targeting the erythropoietin receptor on glioma cells reduces tumour growth

Abstract

Hypoxia has been shown to be one of the major events involved in EPO expression. Accordingly, EPO might be expressed by cerebral neoplastic cells, especially in glioblastoma, known to be highly hypoxic tumours. The expression of EPOR has been described in glioma cells. However, data from the literature remain descriptive and controversial. On the basis of an endogenous source of EPO in the brain, we have focused on a potential role of EPOR in brain tumour growth. In the present study, with complementary approaches to target EPO/EPOR signalling, we demonstrate the presence of a functional EPO/EPOR system on glioma cells leading to the activation of the ERK pathway. This EPO/EPOR system is involved in glioma cell proliferation in vitro. In vivo, we show that the down-regulation of EPOR expression on glioma cells reduces tumour growth and enhances animal survival. Our results support the hypothesis that EPOR signalling in tumour cells is involved in the control of glioma growth.

Authors:
;  [1];  [1];  [2];  [1];  [3];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [1];  [1]
  1. CERVOxy team 'Hypoxia and cerebrovascular pathophysiology', UMR 6232 CI-NAPS, Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, Universite Paris-Descartes, CNRS, CEA. G.I.P. CYCERON, Caen (France)
  2. (France)
  3. Service d'Histologie-Biologie Tumorale, ER2UPMC, Universite Paris 6, Hopital Tenon, Paris (France)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22212176
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Experimental Cell Research; Journal Volume: 317; Journal Issue: 16; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2011 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; ANOXIA; BRAIN; CELL PROLIFERATION; ERYTHROPOIETIN; GLIOMAS; IN VITRO; IN VIVO; NMR IMAGING; PHOSPHOTRANSFERASES; RECEPTORS; RNA

Citation Formats

Peres, Elodie A., Valable, Samuel, Guillamo, Jean-Sebastien, Departement de Neurologie, CHU de Caen, Marteau, Lena, Bernaudin, Jean-Francois, Roussel, Simon, Lechapt-Zalcman, Emmanuele, Service d'Anatomie Pathologique, CHU de Caen, Bernaudin, Myriam, and Petit, Edwige, E-mail: epetit@cyceron.fr. Targeting the erythropoietin receptor on glioma cells reduces tumour growth. United States: N. p., 2011. Web. doi:10.1016/J.YEXCR.2011.06.011.
Peres, Elodie A., Valable, Samuel, Guillamo, Jean-Sebastien, Departement de Neurologie, CHU de Caen, Marteau, Lena, Bernaudin, Jean-Francois, Roussel, Simon, Lechapt-Zalcman, Emmanuele, Service d'Anatomie Pathologique, CHU de Caen, Bernaudin, Myriam, & Petit, Edwige, E-mail: epetit@cyceron.fr. Targeting the erythropoietin receptor on glioma cells reduces tumour growth. United States. doi:10.1016/J.YEXCR.2011.06.011.
Peres, Elodie A., Valable, Samuel, Guillamo, Jean-Sebastien, Departement de Neurologie, CHU de Caen, Marteau, Lena, Bernaudin, Jean-Francois, Roussel, Simon, Lechapt-Zalcman, Emmanuele, Service d'Anatomie Pathologique, CHU de Caen, Bernaudin, Myriam, and Petit, Edwige, E-mail: epetit@cyceron.fr. 2011. "Targeting the erythropoietin receptor on glioma cells reduces tumour growth". United States. doi:10.1016/J.YEXCR.2011.06.011.
@article{osti_22212176,
title = {Targeting the erythropoietin receptor on glioma cells reduces tumour growth},
author = {Peres, Elodie A. and Valable, Samuel and Guillamo, Jean-Sebastien and Departement de Neurologie, CHU de Caen and Marteau, Lena and Bernaudin, Jean-Francois and Roussel, Simon and Lechapt-Zalcman, Emmanuele and Service d'Anatomie Pathologique, CHU de Caen and Bernaudin, Myriam and Petit, Edwige, E-mail: epetit@cyceron.fr},
abstractNote = {Hypoxia has been shown to be one of the major events involved in EPO expression. Accordingly, EPO might be expressed by cerebral neoplastic cells, especially in glioblastoma, known to be highly hypoxic tumours. The expression of EPOR has been described in glioma cells. However, data from the literature remain descriptive and controversial. On the basis of an endogenous source of EPO in the brain, we have focused on a potential role of EPOR in brain tumour growth. In the present study, with complementary approaches to target EPO/EPOR signalling, we demonstrate the presence of a functional EPO/EPOR system on glioma cells leading to the activation of the ERK pathway. This EPO/EPOR system is involved in glioma cell proliferation in vitro. In vivo, we show that the down-regulation of EPOR expression on glioma cells reduces tumour growth and enhances animal survival. Our results support the hypothesis that EPOR signalling in tumour cells is involved in the control of glioma growth.},
doi = {10.1016/J.YEXCR.2011.06.011},
journal = {Experimental Cell Research},
number = 16,
volume = 317,
place = {United States},
year = 2011,
month =
}
  • Purpose: We compared radiosensitivity of brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs) with matched nonstem glioma cells, and determined whether gefitinib enhanced BTSC radiosensitivity by inhibiting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-Akt-DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) signaling, followed by enhanced DNA double-stand breaks (DSBs) and inhibition of DSB repair. Methods and Materials: Radiosensitivity of stem-like gliomaspheres and nonstem glioma cells (obtained at patient neurosurgical resection) were evaluated by clonogenic assays, {gamma}-H{sub 2}AX immunostaining and cell cycle distribution. Survival of irradiated and nonirradiated NOD-SCID mice intracranially implanted with stem-like gliomaspheres were monitored. Glioma cells treated with gefitinib, irradiation, or both were assayed for clonogenic survival,more » {gamma}-H{sub 2}AX immunostaining, DNA-PKcs expression, and phosphorylation of EGFR and Akt. Results: Stem-like gliomaspheres displayed BTSC characteristics of self-renewal; differentiation into lineages of neurons, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes; and initiation of glioma growth in NOD-SCID mice. Irradiation dose-dependently reduced clonogenic survival, induced G{sub 2}/M arrest and increased {gamma}-H{sub 2}AX immunostaining of nonstem glioma cells, but not stem-like gliomaspheres. There was no difference in survival of irradiated and nonirradiated mice implanted with stem-like gliomaspheres. The addition of gefitinib significantly inhibited clonogenic survival, increased {gamma}-H{sub 2}AX immunostaining, and reduced DNA-PKcs expression of irradiated stem-like gliomaspheres, without affecting irradiated-nonstem glioma cells. Gefitinib alone, and when combined with irradiation, inhibited phosphorylation of EGFR (Y1068 and Y1045) and Akt (S473) in stem-like gliomaspheres. In nonstem glioma cells, gefitinib alone inhibited EGFR Y1068 phosphorylation, with further inhibition by combined gefitinib and irradiation. Conclusions: Stem-like gliomaspheres are resistant to irradiation-induced cytotoxicity, G{sub 2}/M arrest, and DNA DSBs, compared with nonstem glioma cells. Gefitinib differentially enhances radiosensitivity of stem-like gliomaspheres by reducing EGFR-Akt activation and DNA-PKcs expression, accompanied by enhanced irradiation-induced DNA DSBs and inhibition of DSB repair.« less
  • Purpose: Despite beneficial effects of irradiation/chemotherapy on survival of glioblastoma (GBM) patients, collateral damage to intact neural tissue leads to 'radiochemobrain' and reduced quality of life in survivors. For prophylactic neuroprotection, erythropoietin (EPO) is a promising candidate, provided that concerns regarding potential tumor promoting effects are alleviated. Methods and Materials: Human GBM-derived cell lines U87, G44, G112, and the gliosarcoma-derived line G28 were treated with EPO, with and without combinations of irradiation or temozolomide (TMZ). Responsiveness of glioma cells to EPO was measured by cell migration from spheroids, cell proliferation, and clonogenic survival. Implantation of U87 cells into brains ofmore » nude mice, followed 5 days later by EPO treatment (5,000 U/kg intraperitoneal every other day for 2 weeks) should reveal effects of EPO on tumor growth in vivo. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was performed for EPOR, HIF-1{alpha}, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)vIII in cell lines and 22 human GBM specimens. Results: EPO did not modulate basal glioma cell migration and stimulated proliferation in only one of four cell lines. Importantly, EPO did not enhance tumor growth in mouse brains. Preincubation of glioma cells with EPO for 3 h, followed by irradiation and TMZ for another 24 h, resulted in protection against chemoradiation-induced cytotoxicity in three cell lines. Conversely, EPO induced a dose-dependent decrease in survival of G28 gliosarcoma cells. In GBM specimens, expression of HIF-1{alpha} correlated positively with expression of EPOR and EGFRvIII. EPOR and EGFRvIII expression did not correlate. Conclusions: EPO is unlikely to appreciably influence basal glioma growth. However, concomitant use of EPO with irradiation/chemotherapy in GBM patients is not advisable.« less
  • Highlights: •Sirt2 expression is down-regulated in human glioma tissues and cell lines. •Sirt2 regresses glioma cell growth and colony formation via inducing apoptosis. •miR-21 is essential for the functions of Sirt2 in glioma cells. •Sirt2 deacetylates p65 to decrease miR-21 expression. -- Abstract: Sirtuins are NAD{sup +}-dependent deacetylases that regulate numerous cellular processes including aging, DNA repair, cell cycle, metabolism, and survival under stress conditions. The roles of sirtuin family members are widely studied in carcinogenesis. However, their roles in glioma remain unclear. Here we report that Sir2 was under expressed in human glioma tissues and cell lines. We foundmore » that Sirt2 overexpression decreased cell proliferation and colony formation capacity. In addition, Sirt2 overexpression induced cellular apoptosis via up-regulating cleaved caspase 3 and Bax, and down-regulating anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Sirt2 knockdown obtained opposing results. We showed that Sirt2 overexpression inhibited miR-21 expression, and Sirt2 was not sufficient to reduce cell proliferation and colony formation as well as to induce apoptosis when miR-21 was knocked down in glioma cells. Mechanically, we demonstrated that Sirt2 deacetylated p65 at K310 and blocked p65 binding to the promoter region of miR-21, thus regressing the transcription of miR-21. In summary, Sirt2 is critical in human glioma via NF-κB–miR-21 pathway and Sirt2 activator may serve as candidate drug for glioma therapy.« less
  • {delta}-Opioid receptor (DOR) agonists possess cytoprotective properties, an effect associated with activation of the 'pro-survival' kinase Akt. Here we delineate the signal transduction pathway by which opioids induce Akt activation in neuroblastoma x glioma (NG108-15) hybrid cells. Exposure of the cells to both [D-Pen{sup 2,5}]enkephalin and etorphine resulted in a time- and dose-dependent increase in Akt activity, as measured by means of an activation-specific antibody recognizing phosphoserine-473. DOR-mediated Akt signaling is blocked by the opioid antagonist naloxone and involves inhibitory G{sub i/o} proteins, because pre-treatment with pertussis toxin, but not over-expression of the G{sub q/11} scavengers EBP50 and GRK2-K220R, preventedmore » this effect. Further studies with Wortmannin and LY294002 revealed that phophoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) plays a central role in opioid-induced Akt activation. Opioids stimulate Akt activity through transactivation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK), because pre-treatment of the cells with inhibitors for neurotrophin receptor tyrosine kinases (AG879) and the insulin-like growth factor receptor IGF-1 (AG1024), but not over-expression of the G{beta}{gamma} scavenger phosducin, abolished this effect. Activated Akt translocates to the nuclear membrane, where it promotes GSK3 phosphorylation and prevents caspase-3 cleavage, two key events mediating inhibition of cell apoptosis and enhancement of cell survival. Taken together, these results demonstrate that in NG108-15 hybrid cells DOR agonists possess cytoprotective properties mediated by activation of the RTK/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.« less